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Evaluation Of The Vasculature

Older methods of evaluating atherosclerosis require longitudinally opened vessels. The intima is stained with Sudan IV solution (68) to facilitate grading, or the vessels are compared with a panel of photographs prepared by the American Heart Association (69). These methods still may be used for research studies.

Employment Discrimination

Both laboratory and field studies show widespread weight bias in all aspects of the employment process (3-7). Research addressing employer attitudes and hiring decisions suggests that overweight people face prejudice even prior to initial job interviews. Studies have manipulated participant perception of employee weight (through written vignettes, videos, or photographs), where subjects are randomly assigned to a condition in which they are asked to evaluate a fictional applicant's qualifications. Overweight employees are evaluated more negatively and are rated as less likely to be hired than average-weight employees, despite identical qualifications. Though this bias has been demonstrated within a variety of employment positions, it appears that overweight applicants are especially denigrated in sales positions and are perceived to be unfit for jobs involving face-to-face interactions (3,8,9).

Humansexdetermination

4.10 Persons with Turner syndrome have a single X chromosome in their cells. (a) Characteristic physical features. (b) Chromosomes from a person with Turner syndrome. (Part a, courtesy of Dr. Daniel C. Postellon, Devos Children's Hospital Part b, Dept. of Clinical Cytogenics, Addenbrookes Hospital Science Photo Library Photo Reseachers.)

The Contribution of Context

The last factor that we examined had to do with the context in which the placement task occurred. Thus far, participants were provided with cutout photographs of real objects, and asked to perform a simple task that involved spatially relating the objects. On the basis of the functional bias, we have been inferring that participants were evaluating how the objects interacted, with this interaction making a particular part more salient, resulting in a bias toward that part. If this is the case, then one should not observe the effect with a located object that does not participate in this interaction, such as the beanbag. This was observed. Moreover, this effect should remain absent, even when providing a context in which the part of the reference object participates in a functional interaction, if the placement task involves an object that cannot fulfill this interaction. Carlson and Kenny (2004) tested this idea in the following manner. Prior to the placement task, participants were...

Self recognition and theory of mind

For example, she saw videotape in which one of her human caretakers was apparently locked in a cage and could not escape despite attempts to open the locked door. The videotape was stopped before the problem was solved, and Sarah was provided with photographs, one of which had the solution to the problem (in this case, a key for the padlock on the cage door). Sarah consistently chose the photograph with the appropriate solution to each problem. The interpretation of Sarah's behavior was that she was able to understand the state of the human in the videotape and she was able to choose the appropriate solution to the person's problem. Additional studies with Sarah suggested she could spontaneously show deception, withholding information or providing incorrect information about the location of a food item from a human who had previously failed to share food with her. In contrast, she provided information about the location of a food object to another human...

Threats to patient privacy in the health care setting

Robertson50 a British television actor, Gorden Kaye, had been seriously injured during the winter storms of 1990 and underwent brain surgery at Charing Cross Hospital in London. While he was recovering in a private room, two reporters from a tabloid newspaper gained access to the room, carried out an interview and took some photographs intended for publication. Kaye, however, had no recollection of the interview minutes after it had taken place and, in any event, was in no state to give valid consent to its use. Yet he was, in effect, unsuccessful in obtaining a remedy to prevent publication. In the absence of specific legal protection of privacy in the United Kingdom, Kaye relied on four different existing forms of action - libel, malicious falsehood, trespass to the person and passing off. Only malicious falsehood was considered to be of any relevance, but no damages were awarded and the injunction that was granted was limited to a prohibition on publishing anything which...

Diagnostic Criteria 121 Visual Diagnosis

Figure 1.3 Deficiency symptoms showing necrosis on young leaves of (a) calcium-deficient lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and necrosis on young and old leaves of (b) calcium-deficient cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). With cucumber the necrosis has extended to all leaves that have not expanded to the potential size of full maturity. (Photographs by Allen V. Barker.) (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.) figure 1.3 Deficiency symptoms showing necrosis on young leaves of (a) calcium-deficient lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and necrosis on young and old leaves of (b) calcium-deficient cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). With cucumber the necrosis has extended to all leaves that have not expanded to the potential size of full maturity. (Photographs by Allen V. Barker.) (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.) figure 1.5 Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) plants showing symptoms of stunting. Left stunting and dark green...

Recording and Preservation of Zymograms

Another technique that allows the keeping of a permanent record of the results of each electrophoretic experiment is photography. The main advantage of photographs is their objectivity. They are relatively rapidly produced and easy to store. Stained cellulose acetate and starch gels are photographed with uniform lighting from above, while stained translucent agar overlays and polyacrylamide gels are photographed on a light box with lighting transmitted from below. Sometimes special conditions are required for photographing stained gels. For example, polyacryl-amide gels stained using the method of calcium phosphate precipitation should be photographed by reflected light against a dark background. In order to produce permanent records of indicator agar plates developed by the method of bioautography, an indirect lighting system is used that is a large version of the lighting system employed for photography of immunodiffusion plates. For photographing fluorescent bands (or...

Cerebral Anatomical Variability

A thorough description of sulcal variability requires access to numerous brain specimens, and a very interesting approach has been taken by Ono, whose work we have already cited extensively. Ono made the only comprehensive atlas of the cerebral sulci, a first attempt to define sulcal variability statisically based on 25 autopsy brain specimens 15 . This author described the sulcal variability of the main constant sulci in terms of their incidence rate in each hemisphere the number of interruptions, side branches, and connections variations of shape, size, and dimensions and the relationship to parenchymal structures. This descriptive work gives very valuable information but remains limited by the methodology used the illustrations provided are photographs of the brain surfaces, and no information is given concerning the depth of the sulci. Furthermore, since it is a paper atlas, no 3D description is available. To overcome these limitations it is necessary to use a method that allows...

The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center

The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) is a set of services and tools of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). NARAC allows authorized emergency managers from local, state, and federal levels of government to request assistance in the event of a release of a radiological, chemical, or biological agent into the atmosphere. NARAC uses state-of-the art dispersion modeling tools developed at LLNL to predict downwind concentrations and even the health consequences of releases. It displays downwind concentrations graphically on maps and even aerial photographs so that responders can view the downwind concentrations at various landmarks such as roads, buildings, and stadiums. It staffs an emergency hotline 24 hours a day, seven days a week for emergency managers to call for assistance. NARAC also has other tools and services such as software for emergency managers to perform modeling locally, training on that software,...

Triangulation Multiple Regression Photographic Documentation and Field Work Participant Observation

Using this multi-method approach, the authors found that in general crime rates and types (violent crimes against persons, or non-violent property based crimes) at stations were related to similar rates and types of crime in the surrounding neighbourhood. However, there were important specific connections between crime incidence at transit stations and the sociodemographic characteristics in the surrounding neighbourhood, the urban form characteristics of the surrounding neighbourhood, and transit station design. First, the regression and qualitative results indicated that c rime at the transit platforms against people was strongly related to ridership - the busiest stations tended to concentrate the most serious crime and that these crimes (assaults, robberies) tended to happen primarily at the station platforms, elevators, and stairs (Loukaitou-Sideris, et al., 2002).* The multivariate regression models used census data and data from the environmental attribute survey to estimate...

Historical Information

Figure 9.1 (A) Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Durum Group) grown with chloride added at 30 mmol in 15 liters of nutrient solution (0.002M KC1) (B) Wheat grown in the absence of halide (C) Wheat grown in absence of chloride and with 1.5 mmol bromide in 15 liters of nutrient solution (0.0001M KBr). Photographs from Engel et al., (9). Reprinted with permission of the authors and Soil Science Society of America. (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.) figure 9.1 (A) Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. Durum Group) grown with chloride added at 30 mmol in 15 liters of nutrient solution (0.002M KC1) (B) Wheat grown in the absence of halide (C) Wheat grown in absence of chloride and with 1.5 mmol bromide in 15 liters of nutrient solution (0.0001M KBr). Photographs from Engel et al., (9). Reprinted with permission of the authors and Soil Science Society of America. (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.)

Late Effects Of Treatment

Sequence of photographs showing a pre-chemother-apy mass (A), response 1 month following cisplatin-based chemotherapy (B), and further shrinkage of residual mass 1 year later (C). Figure 20-3. Sequence of photographs showing a pre-chemother-apy mass (A), response 1 month following cisplatin-based chemotherapy (B), and further shrinkage of residual mass 1 year later (C).

Evolution and systematics

Fossil hominid skeleton (Australopithecus afarensis) known as Lucy. Lucy was part of a rich find of fossils made in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 1973 and 1977. She dates from 3.3 million years ago and is widely accepted as the earliest link in the human record. The remains comprise 40 of an entire skeleton. (Photo by John Reader Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Fossil hominid skeleton (Australopithecus afarensis) known as Lucy. Lucy was part of a rich find of fossils made in the Afar region of Ethiopia between 1973 and 1977. She dates from 3.3 million years ago and is widely accepted as the earliest link in the human record. The remains comprise 40 of an entire skeleton. (Photo by John Reader Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) An illustration showing stages in the evolution of humans. At left, proconsul (23-15 million years ago) is depicted hypothetically as an African ape with both primitive and...

Handling Research Protocols

Many environmental researchers maintain a permanent file of photographs, slides, videos, and movies documenting places and people. This may not be a problem if the images do not distinguish faces. This is best judged by a research team or a panel of colleagues who are mindful of the need to respect the privacy and anonymity of the persons involved. Requesting permission of people to be filmed or interviewed is not always sufficient protection because they may not be able to anticipate the future applications of the research and give an informed consent. They may not understand the consequences of sharing their images or words with a wide audience, whether in print or in presentations.

Embryoid body formation

Approximately 1 week before forming EBs, coat each well of six-well plates with 0.75-1 mL of Matrigel at 1 6 dilution, as described in section Preparation of solutions Matrigel working solution. Refer to Figure 1 for exemplary outline of the protocols and microscopic photographs of differentiating EBs.

Withinmethod Replication

The second general type of multiplicity in method involving the independent variable is replication within a specific method, usually within a particular experiment. This is an important consideration for much social psychological experimentation, although, as Wells and Windschitl (1999) showed in a recent review of this research strategy, it is underappreciated in its importance and underused. Stimulus sampling, in which multiple instances of a stimulus category are used in a particular experiment, is the prime example of this type of replication. Wells and Windschitl (1999) emphasized that stimulus sampling is especially needed whenever individual instances in the category potentially vary from one another in ways that might be relevant to the dependent measure (pp. 1115-1116). An example would be of using photographs to examine the effects of physical attractiveness on person perception (e.g., Alicke, Smith, & Klotz, 1986). Using only one instance to represent levels of...

Evolved Antenna Results

The two best evolved antennas, one from each of the EAs described above, were fabricated and tested. The antenna named ST5-3-10 was produced by the EA that allowed branching, and the antenna named ST5-4W-03 was produced by the other EA. Photographs of the prototyped antennas are shown in Figure 185. Due to space limitations, only performance data from antenna ST5-3-10 is presented below.

Basic Methodology Skin Surface Impressions

Silflo Crow Foot Replica

The site to be sampled should be delineated by affixing adhesive paper rings with orientation tabs such as those manufactured by CuDerm (Dallas, TX). Because the crow's feet furrows taper and become less pronounced as you move away from the periorbital area, it is extremely important that the site be located precisely. To facilitate relocating this site for subsequent serial samples, close-up photographs can be taken of the region with the adhesive rings properly placed for each panelist, as shown in Figure 1 for the crow's foot region. Of the dental-impression materials that have been used, Silflo from Flexico Develop The general principles of image analysis for measuring the microtopography of the skin surface as captured in replica specimens have been previously described 6,7 . Briefly, these instruments consist of a high-resolution, black-and-white digital camera that is interfaced into a computer that contains specially designed image-processing hardware and software. The...

Satellite Imaging Quality and Access

The resolution of military reconnaissance satellites is classified, but civilian experts, such as those at the Federation of American Scientists, have opined that 10 cm per pixel would not be unrealistic. In addition, these satellites' sensors can also take pictures in a night sky. Access to such data is restricted however, if human intelligence (humint'') suggested that some kind of incident would occur, governmental public health and or law enforcement could seek access to these birds.'' Photographs of use in detecting stricken people or animals are most likely taken using optical cameras, infrared sensors, and perhaps radar antennas using synthetic-aperture techniques, assuming that a high enough resolution is achieved.

In Vitro Measures of Functional Antigen Specific Immune Responses

Because the task of counting the number of spots visually becomes difficult and time consuming with large numbers of spots (> 100), computerized plate readers using digital cameras have been developed (50). In addition, current methods allow evaluation of a single cytokine at a time, but Okamoto (51) and colleagues have now described a dual-color method for evaluating two different cytokine release patterns at a time. This is of particular interest given that the presence of Th2-type cells that might result in secretion of suppressive cytokines is now of increasing interest in cancer immunotherapy. Using a dual-color ELISPOT, it should be possible to measure a Th1 and a Th2 cytokine simultaneously. The ELISPOT assay is also being adapted for measurement of antibody-secreting B cells (52).

Biochemistry Of Degradation Of Cell Wall Polymers

The screening of active ligninolytic fungi is done by inoculating wood blocks with the fungus and estimating lignin loss by chemical analyses and transmission electron microscopy. Lignin-degrading activity is measured by measuring the evolution of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled synthetic lignin prepared by polymerizing 14C-labelled p-hydroxycin-namyl alcohols with horseradish peroxidase, or by the oxidation of a lignin model compound, veratryl (3,4-dimethoxybenzyl) alcohol to veratraldehyde in the presence of H2O2. Electron microscopy of wood decayed by white-rot fungi revealed that lignin is degraded at some distance from the hyphae, suggesting that the hyphae produce a highly reactive oxygen species that diffuses out and depolymerizes lignin by breaking the carbon-oxygen and the carbon-carbon bonds. The inability of large-size enzymes to diffuse into wood suggests that fungi employ smaller reactive oxygen species that cleaves C-C bonds. An extracellularly produced lignin-degrading enzyme...

Palatine Muscle In Fish

Yellow Perch Feeding Structure

Fossil of the primitive fish Osteolepis macrolepidotys, from the Middle Devonian period, around 30 million years ago. This specimen was found in Old Red Sandstone in the Sandwick fish beds at Quoyloo, Orkney, Scotland. (Photo by Sinclair Stammers Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Fossil of the primitive fish Osteolepis macrolepidotys, from the Middle Devonian period, around 30 million years ago. This specimen was found in Old Red Sandstone in the Sandwick fish beds at Quoyloo, Orkney, Scotland. (Photo by Sinclair Stammers Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Eleven Principles Of The Who Health Cities Project

The term participation has a wide range of meanings because it can be interpreted as a means of achieving a goal or objective, and as a dynamic process that is not quantifiable or predictable. In the health sector, Wallerstein and Bernstein (1994) concluded from a literature review that there is no consensus about participation, which can refer to a process, a program, a technique or a methodology. Participation can be interpreted as a broad term that refers to dialogue between policy institutions and civic society in order to formulate goals, projects and the allocation of resources in order to achieve desired outcomes. A wide range of techniques and methods can be used including civic forums, focus groups, citizen's juries, surveys, role playing and gaming. These methods can be applied using aids or tools such as maps, plans, photographs, small- or large-scale simulation models and computed aided design kits (Marans and Stokols, 1993).

Patient History And Risk Factors

Prior to the initiation of treatment, a comprehensive ocular examination is required. This includes a complete ophthalmic history, with an emphasis on previous glaucoma diagnosis and therapy. The time of initial diagnosis, maximum IOP, recent IOP measurements, and corneal thickness should be noted. All previous glaucoma medications used, as well as their efficacy and side effects, must be recorded. Secondary causes of glaucoma (e.g., pigmentary, exfoliation, corticosteroid use, trauma, uveitis, or previous ocular surgery) should also be noted. Where available, copies of prior visual fields, optic nerve photographs, and nerve fiber layer measurements should be obtained. Systemic medical conditions and drug allergies must be noted. A family history of ocular diseases, including glaucoma and visual impairment, is important.

Scope and Limitations

Voxel-intensity-based registration methods are generally robust for within-modality registration and require minimal user intervention. As detailed in the chapter Across-Modality Registration using Intensity-Based Cost Functions, extensions of these methods are also effective for across-modality registration. Although most attention has been focused on the brain as the target object for registration, voxel-intensity-based methods can also be used for registration of images of other organs such as the breast 24 . These techniques have been shown to be robust in the presence of focal changes 19,20 and can even be used with clinical images that include differences in tumor size and contrast enhancement 3 . Spatial transformation models need not be restricted to those required for intrasubject registration even moderate order nonlinear warps with hundreds of parameters can be optimized using calculus-based minimization of intensity-based cost functions 22 . Use is not limited to...

The Method of Inverse Dynamics

The method of inverse dynamics is increasingly being used to analyze the sequential ordering of body segment movements during an athletic event. The method is also useful to compute the joint moment that is resisted by muscle action in various modes of movement. Inverse dynamics is based on the experimental determination of velocity and acceleration terms that appear in the laws of motion. These laws are then used to evaluate the unknown forces and moments acting on parts of the body. As we illustrate in the following examples, the position and velocity of a point as well as the angular velocity of a body segment can be determined with reasonable accuracy by recording human movement with the use of digital cameras. Computational errors may be markedly larger in the evaluation of acceleration from data. Researchers use various numerical algorithms to enhance the accuracy of the inverse dynamics method. The sports mechanics literature is full of interesting articles that estimate muscle...

Physical characteristics

Light micrograph of a freshwater copepod (Cyclops sp.). This tiny planktonic crustacean swims by generating hopping movements with its appendages. (Photo by Laguna Design Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) Light micrograph of a freshwater copepod (Cyclops sp.). This tiny planktonic crustacean swims by generating hopping movements with its appendages. (Photo by Laguna Design Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Multimodality Visualization

FIGURE 5 Multiple projection 2D photographs, back projected onto the surface obtained from CT and fused with MR of the brain. (Image courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Nick Bryan, Pheng Ann Heng.) FIGURE 5 Multiple projection 2D photographs, back projected onto the surface obtained from CT and fused with MR of the brain. (Image courtesy of M. Solaiyappan, Nick Bryan, Pheng Ann Heng.)

Perspective Transformations

The most general linear transformation is the perspective transformation. Lines that were parallel before perspective transformation can intersect after transformation. This transformation is not generally useful for tomographic imaging data, but is relevant for radiologic images where radiation from a point source interacts with an object to produce a projected image on a plane. Likewise, it is relevant for photographs where the light collected has all passed through the focal point of the lens. The perspective transformation also rationalizes the extra constant row in the matrix formulation of affine transformations. Figure 9 illustrates a two-dimensional perspective image.

Changes in the DNA Base Sequence

First cells are obtained from blood or other cells of an adult or a fetus through chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. If necessary, for example, with adult cells, phytohemagglutinin, a chemical that stimulates growth and division is added. Then, after growth, colcemid, a chemical that stops the cells in mitosis is added. Then these cells are swollen in a low-salt solution and dropped onto a microscope slide. This step bursts open the cells and spreads out the chromosomes. The chromosomes are then stained and photographed through the microscope. In the past, photographs of chromosomes were literally cut up with scissors and arranged by size and shape. Now, this is all done with image-analysis software. Figure 7.3 How Karyotypes Are Made. First cells are obtained from blood or other cells of an adult or a fetus through chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. If necessary, for example, with adult cells, phytohemagglutinin, a chemical that...

Approaches In Research

Precision agriculture considers spatial variability across a field to optimize application of fertilizer and other inputs on a site-specific basis (76,90,108-110). Precision agriculture employs technologies of global positioning and geographic information systems and remote sensing. These technologies permit decisions to be made in the management of crop-yield-limiting biotic and abiotic factors and their interactions on a site-specific basis rather than on a whole-field basis (111-114). Remote sensing is a term applied to research that assesses soil fertility and plant responses through means other than on-the-ground sampling and analysis (115). Research has applied video image analysis in monitoring plant growth to assess soil fertility and management (116). Spectral reflection and digital processing of aerial photographs have been researched to assess soil fertility (117). In precision agriculture, it is possible for the fertilizer spreader on the back of a tractor to operate at...

Diagnosis Of Nitrogen Status In Plants 231 Symptoms of Deficiency and Excess

Figure 2.1 Photographs of nitrogen deficiency symptoms on (a) corn (Zea mays L.), (b) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and (c) parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nym.). (Photographs by Allen V. Barker.) (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.) figure 2.1 Photographs of nitrogen deficiency symptoms on (a) corn (Zea mays L.), (b) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and (c) parsley (Petroselinum crispum Nym.). (Photographs by Allen V. Barker.) (For a color presentation of this figure, see the accompanying compact disc.)

Clinical Progression Of Ws

Figure 80.2 Clinical progression and features of Werner syndrome. A, B. Photographs of a Werner syndrome patient reported by Epstein et al. (1966) as Case 1, at ages 15 (A) and 48 (B). C, D. Photographs of a second patient at ages 13 (C) and 56 (D). Note in both instances the rounded face, sharp features, graying, thinning, and loss of scalp and eyebrow hair and, in D, the thin, atrophic forearms and elbow ulceration. Panels A and B are used with kind permission of Drs. George Martin and Nancy Hanson of the International Registry of Werner Syndrome, and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (B). The patient photographs in panels C and D were previously published in Martin (2005), and are used here courtesy of the patient's spouse with informed consent of the patient and of Drs. George Martin and Nancy Hanson, and Elsevier Press. Figure 80.2 Clinical progression and features of Werner syndrome. A, B. Photographs of a Werner syndrome patient reported by Epstein et al. (1966) as Case 1, at...

Application of Image Analysis to the Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

Of course, giving detailed solutions to all these problems would go over the scope of this paper. After having analyzed the nature of color in fundus photographs and after having given a short introduction into mathematical morphology, a nonlinear image-processing technique our algorithms are mainly based on, we will describe in detail some algorithms within this framework We will present an algorithm for image enhancement, algorithms for the detection of the vessels and the optic disk, and finally algorithms for the detection of characteristic lesions like microaneurysms and exudates. These segmentation algorithms are essential for computer-assisted screening and monitoring systems.

Significance to humans

Naturally the shells were worn as displays of wealth, as can be seen in photographs by Edward Curtis as well as in the displays at such museums as the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria, and the Field Museum in Chicago. As of 2003, scaphopod shells are frequently sold in shell shops and often made into jewelry.

Causes and Types of Abnormal Pupils

Benign Anisocoria Usually a young adult with benign anisocoria reports a difference in pupil size. The longer it has been present, the less likely it is to be important. Ask for some old photographs of the patient, and examine them for pupil inequalities. The response to light and near in both eyes is normal, the difference in pupil size is no greater in dimness or light, mydriat-ics and miotics have a normal response, and there is no diagnosis.

Environmental Strategiesmodifications

Modifying the patient's environment may include using devices to assist with behavioral symptoms such as wandering and forgetfulness. Products can be purchased at specialty stores via the World Wide Web (agelessde-sign.com). To prevent and deter wandering, murals can disguise a door, and siren alarms can emit sound when a door is opened. Specialized telephones have large preset buttons, and pictures on buttons identify an individual's telephone number. In a nursing home setting, large print signs with residents' names and photographs have been found to help AD residents locate their rooms (Nolan, Mathews, & Harrison, 2001). However, care should be taken to consider the stage of the patient when considering environmental modification because patients' needs may change according to the degree of illness.

Methods Of Data Retrieval

How elaborate the autopsy data-processing system will be depends on whether all or only a portion of relevant autopsy data should be retrievable. Most general pathologists are principally interested in 1) a basic documentation of major pathologic findings and 2) data that can be used for workload recording and other administrative functions. The system should also contain information about photographs and other material germane to the specific question.

Principles and Practicality

When starting therapy the parents and child must be given adequate information and must be made fully aware of the importance of adherence. Realism is essential and the family should know what the combination involves, what to expect particularly during the first few weeks of the regimen and know exactly what to do if there are any problems (e.g., the child vomits, develops a rash, refuses to swallow the medicine). If possible give some choice to the child in the timing of the dosing, the child could taste preparations prior to determining the combination or between pills or liquid. There are several aids to adherence which can be used including a star chart where the young child attaches coloured stickers each time they take their medicine, dosset boxes as a reminder to families whether each dose has been taken, pill crushers and pill cutters to enable smaller children to avoid liquid preparations and pill charts with clearly labelled photographs of each of the drugs to help prevent...

Information Management

It follows that three processes are always present in any investigation that can be improved by psychological study. First, the collection and evaluation of information derived from accounts of the crime. These accounts may include photographs or other recordings derived from the crime scene. There may also be records of other transactions such as bills paid or telephone calls made. Increasingly there are also records available within computer systems used by witnesses, victims or suspects. Often there will be witnesses to the crime or there will be results of the crime available for examination. There will transcripts of interviews or reports from various experts. Further there will be information in police and other records that may be drawn upon to provide indications for action. Once suspects are elicited there is further potential information about them either directly from interviews with them, or indirectly through reports from others. In addition there may be information from...

The Detection of the Optic Disk

The optic disk is the entrance of the optic nerve and the vessels into the retina. It is situated on the nasal side of the macula and it does not contain any photoreceptor It is also called the blind spot. In color fundus photographs, the optic disk appears as a big bright spot of circular or elliptical shape, interrupted by the outgoing vessels. Its size varies from patient to patient, but its diameter is always comprised between 40 and 60 pixels in 640 x 480 images. The optic disk is characterized by a strong contrast between outgoing vessels and the bright color of the optic disk itself.

Research to Inform the Probative Prejudicial Debate

Vivid information may be more influential than pallid information because it evokes more emotional responses due to its greater ability to excite the imagination (Bell and Loftus, 1985). Those emotional responses may lead to subsequent biases in memory. For example, jurors in a civil case often take pain and suffering into account when determining damages. Compared to pallid testimony, vivid testimony may include more details about injury severity, which may increase the vividness of the evidence without changing its probative value. As a result, jurors may remember and use the details more than if they had not considered the vivid, emotion-provoking testimony. Two studies that investigated the impact of crime-scene photographs (Douglas, Lyon and Ogloff, 1997) and videotape re-enactments (Fishfader et al., 1996) found that mock jurors had a stronger emotional reaction to the demonstrative evidence than they did to oral testimony. Again, jurors' increased emotional reaction to vivid...

Correct Handling of Deaths from Firearms

The body is then examined without the clothing and without cleaning. One should search for trace evidence, powder grains, and soot. One may want to take photographs of the uncleaned wounds at this time. The body is then cleaned and re-examined for any other wounds that may have been concealed by dried blood. Photographs of the cleaned wounds may then be taken. The prosector should go back to the clothing and again correlate the observed entrances and exits with defects in the clothing. They should re-examine defects in the clothing for the presence of powder or soot. The use of a dissecting microscope is strongly recommended. Photographing of the wounds on the body is recommended. At least two photographs of each entrance wound should be taken. One should be a placement shot showing where the wound is in relationship to other body landmarks. The second should be a close-up showing the appearance of the wound. Most individuals take a third shot between the two extremes. It is helpful...

Vitamin A Deficiency Infection and Mortality in Developing Countries A Recurring Theme

In 1965, the Western Hemisphere Nutrition Congress was organized by the American Medical Association, and W. Henry Sebrell (1901-1992), the former director of the National Institutes of Health, noted vitamin A deficiency is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious condition which is widespread in some parts of this hemisphere. Vitamin A deficiency accounts for widespread blindness or impaired vision and to a large extent contributes to high mortality (99). The Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense of the US National Institutes of Health conducted surveys in which data on vitamin A deficiency were collected. Vitamin A deficiency was considered a major health problem in many countries, including Jordan (100), Ethiopia (101), Vietnam (102), Thailand (103), Lebanon (104), and East Pakistan (105). These surveys defined vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem if more than 5 of the population had plasma or serum vitamin A concentration < 0.35 pmol L or...

Photography With William D Edwards

Color photographs, prepared with a 35-millimeter single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera or a digital camera, have become an integral part of autopsy records and the main tool of presenting findings at clinical conferences, in the classroom, and in court. These advantages have led to the decline of the pathology museum. Because most autopsy pathologists are sufficiently familiar with photographic equipment and the indications for its use, only a brief overview shall be provided here. photographs with appropriate lighting. Another unit should be available for specimen photography. This type of equipment is readily available commercially. SPECIMEN PREPARATION Before pictures are taken, specimens should be prepared as if they were intended for display in the museum. This may involve restoration of color with 80 ethanol, additional trimming and dissection, support of lesions with pins or other devices, drying of light-reflecting surfaces and use of a black matte background with rulers. For the...

Overview of the eye

The eye is a complex sensory organ that provides the sense of sight. In many ways, the eye is similar to a digital camera. Like the optical system of a camera, the cornea and lens of the eye capture and focus light. The light detector in a digital camera, called the charge-coupled device (CCD), consists of closely spaced photodiodes that capture, collect, and convert the light image into a series of electrical impulses. Similarly, the photoreceptors in the retina of the eye detect light intensity and color and encode these parameters into electrical impulses for transmission to the brain via the optic nerve.

Testing children with tasks developed for monkeys Use of the Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus

Figure 8.1 Testing apparatus for human subjects (A) and monkeys (B). For these photographs the vertical doors were raised higher than in normal testing, during which the doors were raised only about 10 cm. Figure 8.1 Testing apparatus for human subjects (A) and monkeys (B). For these photographs the vertical doors were raised higher than in normal testing, during which the doors were raised only about 10 cm.

Initial Procedure

In general, specimens are measured, opened with blunt-ended scissors along the antemesenteric border and then blocked longitudinally (but see diverticular disease and tumour) following gentle washing out of faecal debris, pinning out with avoidance of unnecessary traction, and immersion in 10 formalin fixative for 48 hours. Photographs may be taken before and after dissection.

Introduction The Chicken as a Model Organism

The earliest recorded descriptions of the chicken as a model for biological processes are attributed to Hippocrates and Aristotle, who wrote about embryonic development in fertilized chicken eggs. Twentieth-century embryologists authored numerous treatises describing, diagramming, and providing detailed photographs of the chicken during development (Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951 Romanoff, 1960 Eyal-Giladi and Kochev, 1976), which promoted use of the chicken embryo as a model for study of mechanisms including morphogenesis neurogenesis somatogenesis limb, limb-digit and

Selection Of Tissue Blocks For Histologic Examination

In most cases, the size of the sections can be limited to be suitable for the standard 1- by 3-inch glass slides. We use tissue capsules of different sizes for automatic processing machines. We try not to mutilate the original brain slices and therefore, if photographs are taken of crosssectional surfaces, we select tissue blocks from the same surface of the adjoining slice so

Interviews and Qualitative Approaches

Forsyth (2002), in an article entitled Planning Lessons From Three U.S. New Towns of the 1960s and 1970s Irvine, Columbia, and The Woodlands, examined these three master-planned communities to determine the degree to which private sector experiments in design and development could effectively limit sprawl, support and enhance diversity, and facilitate sustainability. Using our urban planning themes, this study tackles the themes of economic development, urban design, equity and social justice, and sustainability. In this article, Forsyth uses a combination of interview data (140 interviews with developers, residents, and civic leaders, and 26 existing oral history interviews), descriptive statistics of national (census) and local (density data, existing resident surveys) datasets, and an analysis of maps and aerial photographs. She found that the three developments (Irvine, CA, Columbia, MD, and The Woodlands, TX) tended to meet smart growth goals for higher residential densities, but...

Brunswik

The quest for representative design and representative sampling was a fourth important contribution. Brunswik, concerned about the generalizability of experimental results, warned that their ecological validity will be limited if experimental designs and samples are nonrepresentative. Designs are nonrep-resentative when they ignore correlations among dimensions of the data box in the real world. Individuals select situations, types, and modes of behavior are confounded, and situations and time cannot be combined at will. Brunswik illustrated this issue with reference to his own research on the validity of physiognomic trait impressions for personality and ability judgment. In his early studies, Brunswik used schematized drawings and fully crossed facial properties (e.g., eye separation and forehead height) for creating Gestalten (holistic impressions). Later, he recognized that such an orthogonal design violates the natural correlation among facial facets and continued his research...

Behavioral Evidence

Microaffordances are not only elicited as a response to the size of an object. Tucker and Ellis (1998) conducted an experiment in which they presented participants with photographs of objects with handles, such as cups. The cups were presented upright or upside down, with the handle extending to the left or to the right of the object. Participants had to indicate whether the object was upright or reversed by pressing a left or a right key. Results showed a clear effect of the compatibility between the position of the handle and the orientation of the key, indicating that seeing an object can potentiate a certain response. In a further study, Phillips and Ward (2002) presented participants with a visual objects prime such as a frying pan with a handle. Its handle could be on the left, on the right, or in the middle, and it could be placed nearer to or further from the participant. The prime was followed after a varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) by an imperative target requiring a...

Motility

Doll Eyes Maneuver

The major task in evaluating a child with a motility abnormality is trying to determine whether it is caused by a common strabismus or a potentially more serious acquired disorder. The acute nature of the presentation, which is often helpful in adults, can be confusing in children as many benign entities such as accommodative esotropia can suddenly appear. In addition, many congenital motility disturbances such as Brown's syndrome and Duane's syndrome can go unnoticed for quite some time. Careful observation for compensatory head positions, variability, or signs of aberrant regeneration may give a clue as to the acquired nature of the disorder. Examination of old photographs can be extremely useful in dating the onset of the strabismus. Because strabismus is often secondary to other ophthalmic abnormalities, a thorough eye exam including cycloplegic refraction (to rule out accommodative factors) is necessary. Because most neuro-ophthalmic motility disorders result from a weakness of...

Time [sec

Distribution of field inhomogeneities. Koehler et al. (24) showed that this structure can be observed on T2* maps of rat hearts at 11.75 T, a field strength much higher than used in current clinical MRI scanners. In this study, an in-plane resolution of 78 m and a slice thickness of 250 m were achieved, which compares quite favorably with photographs of postmortem histological sections. The field inhomogeneities revealed by T2* did provide structural information about biological tissue (both normal and scar tissue), as shown in Fig. 17. Two obvious advantages of this NMR technique compared to conventional histology are its noninvasive nature and speed.

Specimen Photography

An accurate macroscopic description of a gross specimen is often vital in making the correct diagnosis (e.g., the pattern of involvement in inflammatory bowel disease) and in accurately staging a malignant tumour. With the decline of the autopsy and the controversy surrounding organ retention, macroscopic specimen photographs also play an important role in undergraduate teaching, and may be correlated with radiological images in today's integrated courses. Macroscopic specimen photography has also been used to audit the quality of mesorectal excision in rectal cancers and it is an important communication medium in multidisciplinarian team meetings. Another factor that may contribute to its increasing use includes participation of BMSs in specimen dissection and in the selection of tissue for histology specimen dissection is inherently destructive and sequential pictures can be used to record key features of the specimen. The use of a stand is recommended. A 35 mm camera may be used. A...

Surgical Technique

Anterior Temporal Horn

Photographs of a fixed brain demonstrating the extent of cortical resection in anterior temporal lobectomy. The lateral neocortical resection extends 3 cm posterior to the tip of the temporal pole in the dominant hemisphere and 4 cm in the nondominant hemisphere. Figure 1 A. Photographs of a fixed brain demonstrating the extent of cortical resection in anterior temporal lobectomy. The lateral neocortical resection extends 3 cm posterior to the tip of the temporal pole in the dominant hemisphere and 4 cm in the nondominant hemisphere.

Anthropometry

Alternatively, precise physical measurements can be extrapolated from a standardized photograph in a technique called photogrammetric anthropometry. This method is costly, requiring standardized cameras and computarization, and again it is not an everyday, practical approach. Clinical geneticists frequently take photographs to document clinical features. A standard set includes face, front, and side total body, front, back, and side with palms forward close-up of hands and feet, and any other unusual features. However, without a reference standard of size in the photograph, they cannot be used for accurate measurements.

Human Skull

I The following set of reference plates is presented to help you locate some of the more prominent features of the human skull. As you study these photographs, it is important to remember that individual human skulls vary in every characteristic. Also, the photographs in this set depict bones from several different skulls.

Fourth Nerve Palsy

Congenital Fourth Nerve Palsy

To diagnose a congenital superior oblique palsy, old photographs are helpful, often revealing a long-standing head tilt. Also, vertical fusional amplitudes frequently exceed the normal range of 3 to 4 prism diopters. The presence of a suppression scotoma when assessing diplopia or the presence of fusion also aids in establishing the chronicity of the condition as suppression is usually a childhood adaptation mechanism. Moreover, the presence of facial asymmetry may be associated with a longstanding head tilt from early childhood.176,202,338,528 The presence of facial asymmetry may not be a specific sign for congenital superior oblique palsy, however, because patients with acquired

Trophozoite

Figure 11.2 Morphological features of Entamoeba histolytica. The main morphological features usually visible in the cyst and trophozoite stages are indicated in diagrammatic form. A stained cyst (iron-hematoxylin) is shown for comparison - with this stain the cyst wall is only visible as a clear ring around the cyst. Chromatoid bars are transient features of the cyst and consist of crystalline ribosomes. A live trophozoite photographed under DIC optics is also shown. The cytoplasm is filled with small food vacuoles, obscuring the nucleus. The pseudopod is clear and forms at the front edge of the moving cell. At the rear of the cell is the uroid, which is where undigested waste is expelled from the cell. Photographs courtesy of John Williams, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

Satellites

Space-based observation can detect the presence of deceased humans and animals, or degraded crops. A reconnaissance satellite photographs a scene of interest, and transmits its images in digital form to an interpretation center on the ground, either directly, or relayed by a communications satellite. The value of the images depends on the type of image, its resolution, and the time elapsed between the occurrence of an event and receipt of imagery by a trained analyst.

Figure

Photographs may then be taken of the CRT to record data, or the image may be recorded on videotape. Other detectors can be used to measure x-rays emitted from the surface, cathodoluminescence of molecules in the tissue below the surface, and Auger electrons emitted at the surface.

Caenogastropods

Photo Macrograph of the species Xenophora pal-lidula, a member of the carrier shell family, named for cementing broken shells and stones to its own shell, a decorative variation on the theme of camouflage. (Photo by Science Photo Library Photo Researchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.)

Evaluation

Pedestrians passing by the Sunnyside Piazza were compared to pedestrians at an unimproved, adjacent intersection and it was observed that 32 interacted in some way with the art projects by either addressing a stranger about the mural, reading the signs, taking photographs, playing with the water fountain, etc while only 7 (P< 0.01) of pedestrians at the adjacent control intersection interacted in any way with the urban environment or another pedestrian (Semenza, 2003). Residents at the intervention site were compared to residents at two unimproved, nearby intersections of 97 Sunnyside Piazza residents surveyed within a two block radius of the intersection the majority (65 , n 63) of respondents classified their neighborhood as an excellent place to live, compared to 35 at the control sites. Residents at the Sunnyside Piazza scored better with other social indicators as well and indicated better general health compared to the two unimproved control sites (P< 0.01). The...

E Microscopy

Thick sections are examined with a light microscope, while advanced imaging is done with a research microscope with a digital camera, hooked to a computer for image processing and editing. We use Leica QWin, Nikon or Olympus digital microscopes. Alternatively, the sections can be photographed on film and printed or mounted on 35 mm slides. The resolution of photographic images is superior to that of the digital images and they could be scanned on to a computer for editing. Thin sections are examined by TEM. We use Jeol, Hitachi or Philips microscopes but others such as Zeiss are equally good. The transmission electron microscope has to be maintained, and operated by an experienced technician. Lower magnifications (x 2,000 to x 5,000) are more useful to image whole cells, while

Chromosome

Another researcher invented a method of separating the chromosomes, but still he thought he saw twenty-four pairs. It was not until 1955, when an Indonesian named Joe-Hin Tjio travelled from Spain to Sweden to work with Albert Levan, that the truth dawned. Tjio and Levan, using better techniques, plainly saw twenty-three pairs. They even went back and counted twenty-three pairs in photographs in books where the caption stated that there were twenty-four pairs. There are none so blind as do not wish to see.1

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presented in this book is  accurate. However, the reader should understand that the information provided does not constitute legal, medical or professional advice of any kind.

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