Gans, C. Biomechanics: An Approach to Vertebrate Biology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1974.

Schwenk, K. "Feeding in Lepidosaurs." In Feeding: Form, Function, and Evolution in Tetrapod Vertebrates. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000: 175-291.

Vanzolini, P. E. Evolution, Adaptation and Distribution of the Amphisbaenid Lizards (Sauria: Amphisbaenidae). Ph.D. diss. Harvard University, 1951.


Castañeda, M. R., and T. Alvarez. "Contribucion al conocimiento de la osteologia apendicular de Bipes (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia)." Anales de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas Mexico 17 (1968): 189-206.

Cope, E. D. "On the Genera and Species of Euchirotidae." American Naturalist 28 (1894): 436-437.

Gans, C. "Amphisbaenians—Reptiles Specialized for a Burrowing Existence." Endeavour 28 (1969): 146-151.

———. "The Characteristics and Affinities of the

Amphisbaenia." Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 34 (1978): 347-416.

Gans, C., and E. Wever. "The Ear and Hearing in

Amphisbaenia (Reptilia)." Journal of Experimental Zoology 179 (1972): 17-34.

———. "The Amphisbaenian Ear: Blanus cinereus and

Diplometopon zarudnyi." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72 (1975): 1487-1490.

Hodges, W. L., and E. Perez-Ramos. "New Localities and Natural History Notes on Bipes canaliculatus in Guerrero, México." Herpetological Review 32, no. 3 (2001): 153-156.

Kearney, M. "The Appendicular Skeleton in Amphisbaenians." Copeia 2002, no. 3 (2002): 719-738.

-. "Diet in the Amphisbaenian Bipes biporus." Journal of

Herpetology. In press.

Papenfuss, T. "The Ecology and Systematics of the Amphisbaenian Genus Bipes." Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 136 (1982): 1-42.

Renous, S., J. P. Gasc, and A. Raynaud. "Comments on the Pelvic Appendicular Vestiges in an Amphisbaenian: Blanus cinereus (Reptilia, Squamata)." Journal of Morphology 209 (1991): 23-28.

Taylor, E. H. "Does the Amphisbaenid Genus Bipes Occur in the United States?" Copeia 1938 (1938): 202.

Zangerl, R. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Postcranial Skeleton of the Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 33 (1945): 764-780.

———. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Skull of the Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 31 (1944): 417-454.

Maureen Kearney, PhD

Florida wormlizards


Class Reptilia Order Squamata Suborder Amphisbaenia Family Rhineuridae

Elongate, slender, limbless, fossorial reptiles with scales arranged in annular rings, eyes greatly reduced or absent, no external ear openings, a spatulate head covered with a keratinized shield, and a dorsoventrally flattened, short tail


9.5-11 in (240-280 mm)

Number of genera, species

1 genus; 1 species


Sandy soils, xerix scrub forest, mesic hammock forest

Not listed by the IUCN

Rhineurids have a restricted distribution in northeastern and north-central Florida

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment