Resources

Books

Gans, C. Biomechanics: An Approach to Vertebrate Biology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1974.

Linné, C. V. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. Editio decima, reformata. Vol. 1. Stockholm, 1758.

Schwenk, K. "Feeding in Lepidosaurs." In Feeding: Form, Function, and Evolution in Tetrapod Vertebrates. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000: 175-291.

Vanzolini, P. E. Evolution, Adaptation and Distribution of the Amphisbaenid Lizards (Sauria: Amphisbaenidae). Ph.D. diss. Harvard University, 1951.

Periodicals

Colli, G. R., and D. S. Zamboni. "Ecology of the Worm-lizard Amphisbaena alba in the Cerrado of Central Brazil." Copeia 1999: 733-742.

Gans, C. "The Characteristics and Affinities of the

Amphisbaenia." Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 34 (1978): 347-416.

Gans, C., and E. Wever. "The Amphisbaenian Ear: Blanus cinereus and Diplometopon zarudnyi." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 72 (1975): 1487-1490.

-. "The Ear and Hearing in Amphisbaenia (Reptilia)."

Journal of Experimental Zoology 179 (1972): 17-34.

Kearney, M. "The Appendicular Skeleton in Amphisbaenians." Copeia 2002, no. 3 (2002): 719-738.

Montero, R., and C. Gans. "The Head Skeleton of

Amphisbaena alba." Annals of the Carnegie Museum 68 (1999): 15-80.

Renous, S., J. P. Gasc, and A. Raynaud. "Comments on the Pelvic Appendicular Vestiges in an Amphisbaenian: Blanus cinereus (Reptilia, Squamata)." Journal of Morphology 209 (1991): 23-28.

Riley, J., J. M. Winch, A. F. Stimson, and R. D. Pope. "The Association of Amphisbaena alba (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia) with the Leaf-cutting Ant Atta cephalotes in Trinidad." Journal of Natural History 20 (1986): 459-470.

Zangerl, R. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Postcranial Skeleton of the Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 33 (1945): 764-780.

-. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Skull of the

Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 31 (1944): 417-454.

Maureen Kearney, PhD

Mole-limbed wormlizards

(Bipedidae)

Class Reptilia Order Squamata Suborder Amphisbaenia Family Bipedidae

Elongate, slender, fossorial reptiles with scales arranged in annular rings, short robust forelimbs, hindlimbs absent, no external ear openings, a rounded head, blunt snout, and short tail

4.7-9.4 in (120-240 mm)

[

Number of genera, species

1 genus; 3 species

1 ^ J

Arid scrub lands or desert, arroyos, alluvial sediments around river basins

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Not listed by the IUCN

Bipedids have a restricted distribution in coastal southwestern Mexico and Baja California

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