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Freshwater Turtle Erymnochelys madagascariensis." Journal of Herpetology 27, no. 4 (1993): 470-472.

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Thorbjarnarson, J. B., N. Perez, and T. Escalona. "Nesting of Podocnemis unifilis in the Capanaparo River, Venezuela." Journal of Herpetology 27, no. 3 (1993): 344-347.

Valenzuela, N. "Multiple Paternity in Side-Necked Turtles Podocnemis expansa: Evidence from Microsatellite DNA Data." Molecular Ecology 9 (2000): 99-105.

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Sex Determination in Podocnemis expansa Turtles." Ecology 82, no. 11 (2001): 3,010-3,024.

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John B. Iverson, PhD

Class Reptilia Order Testudines Suborder Cryptodira Family Testudinidae

Thumbnail description

Terrestrial turtles with elephantine hind legs, flattened forelegs, and unwebbed toes


Up to 55 in (140 cm) carapace length and 562 lb (255 kg)

Number of genera, species

12 genera; ca. 47 species


Terrestrial ecosystems Conservation status

Critically Endangered: 1 species; Endangered: 7 species; Vulnerable: 16 species

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