Resources

Books

Gans, C. Biomechanics: An Approach to Vertebrate Biology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1974.

Schwenk, K "Feeding in Lepidosaurs." In Feeding: Form, Function, and Evolution in Tetrapod Vertebrates. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000: 175-291.

Vanzolini, P. E. Evolution, Adaptation and Distribution of the Amphisbaenid Lizards (Sauria: Amphisbaenidae). Ph.D. diss. Harvard University, 1951.

Periodicals

Baird, S. F. "Description of New Genera and Species of North American Lizards in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1858 (1859): 253-256.

Berman, D. "A New Amphisbaenian (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia) from the Oligocene-Miocene John Day Formation, Oregon." Journal of Paleontology 50 (1976): 165-174.

-. "Hyporhina tertia, New Species (Reptilia:

Amphisbaenia) from the Early Oligocene (Chadronian) White River Formation of Wyoming." Annals of the Carnegie Museum 44 (1972): 1-10.

-. "Spathorhynchus natronicus, a Middle Eocene

Amphisbaenian (Reptilia) from Wyoming." Copeia 1973 (1973): 704-721.

Carr, A. "Notes on Eggs and Young of the Lizard Rhineura floridana." Copeia 1949 (1949): 77.

Cope, E. D. "Remarks on Reptiles." Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 13 (1861): 75.

Gans, C. "The Characteristics and Affinities of the

Amphisbaenia." Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 34 (1978): 347-416.

Gans, C., and E. Wever. "The Ear and Hearing in

Amphisbaenia (Reptilia)." Journal of Experimental Zoology 179 (1972): 17-34.

Gilmore, C. W. "Fossil Lizards of North America." Memoirs of the National Academy of Science 22 (1928): 1-201.

Kearney, M. "The Appendicular Skeleton in Amphisbaenians." Copeia 2002, no. 3 (2002): 719-738.

Taylor, E. H. "Concerning Oligocene Amphisbaenid Reptiles." University of Kansas Science Bulletin 34 (1951): 521-579.

Zangerl, R. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Postcranial Skeleton of the Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 33 (1945): 764-780.

-. "Contributions to the Osteology of the Skull of the

Amphisbaenidae." American Midland Naturalist 31 (1944): 417-454.

Maureen Kearney, PhD

Spade-headed wormlizards

(Trogonophidae)

Class Reptilia Order Squamata Suborder Amphisbaenia Family Trogonophidae

Thumbnail description

Elongate, limbless, fossorial reptiles with scales arranged in annular rings, eyes greatly reduced or absent, no external ear openings, a spade-shaped head with sharp cutting edges, and an extremely short, pointed tail

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3.1-9.4 in (80-240 mm)

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Number of genera, species

4 genera; 8 species

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Loose, sandy, or loamy soils

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No species listed by the IUCN

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Trogonophids occur in northern Africa, the island of Socotra, and a disjunct distribution in the Middle East from western Iran to eastern Somalia

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