Resources

Books

Greene, H. Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in Nature. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.

McDiarmid, R. W., J. A. Campbell, and T. A. Toure. Snake Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Vol. 1. Washington, DC: Herpetologists' League, 1999.

Shaw, C. E., and S. Campbell. Snakes of the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974.

Werler, J. E., and J. R. Dixon. Texas Snakes: Identification,

Distribution, and Natural History. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000.

Periodicals

Beebe, W. "Field Notes on the Snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela." Zoologica 31 (1946): 11-52.

Brattstrom, B. H., and R. C. Schwenkmeyer. "Notes on the Natural History of the Worm Snake, Leptotyphlops humilis." Herpetologica 7 (1951): 193-196.

Broadley, D. G., and S. Broadley. "A Review of the African Worm Snakes from South of Latitude 12°S (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae)." Syntarsus 5 (1999): 1-36.

Gehlbach, F. R., and R. S. Baldridge. "Live Blind Snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) in Eastern Screech Owl (Otus asio) Nests: A Novel Commensalism." Oecologica 71 (1987): 560-563.

Hahn, D. E., and V. Wallach. "Comments on the Systematics of Old World Leptotyphlops (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae), with Description of a New Species." Hamadryad 23 (1998): 50-62.

Hoogmoed, M. S. "On a New Species of Leptotyphlops from Surinam, with Notes on the Other Surinam Species of the Genus (Leptotyphlopidae, Serpentes). Notes on the Herpetofauna of Surinam V." Zoologische Mededelingen 51 (1977): 99-123.

Klauber, L. M. "The Worm Snakes of the Genus Leptotyphlops in the United States and Northern Mexico." Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 9 (1940): 87-162.

Kley, N. J., and E. L. Brainerd. "Feeding by Mandibular Raking in a Snake." Nature 402 (1999): 369-370.

List, J. C. "Comparative Osteology of the Snake Families Typhlopidae and Leptotyphlopidae." Illinois Biological Monographs 36 (1966): 1-112.

Watkins II, J. F., F. R. Gehlbach, and J. C. Kroll. "Attractant-Repellent Secretions of Blind Snakes (Leptotyphlops dulcis) and their Army Ant Prey (Neivamyrmex nigrescens)." Ecology 50 (1969): 1,098-1,102.

Webb, J. K., R. Shine, W. R. Branch, and P. S. Harlow. "Life-History Strategies in Basal Snakes: Reproduction and Dietary Habits of the African Thread Snake Leptotyphlops scutifrons (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae)." Journal of Zoology, London 250 (2000): 321-327.

Nathan J. Kley, PhD

Class Reptilia Order Squamata Suborder Serpentes Family Typhlopidae

Thumbnail description

Small to medium-sized fossorial snakes with smooth, uniformly sized body scales; highly reduced eyes; small, ventrally placed mouth; variably shaped snout; and short tail bearing a sharp terminal spine

Size

Number of genera, species

6 genera; 214 species

Habitat

Soil

Conservation status

Endangered: 1 species; Vulnerable: 1 species

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