Branch, Bill. Field Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. South Africa, 1998.

Spawls, Stephen, and Bill Branch. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa: Natural History, Species Directory, Venoms, and Snakebite. Sanibel Island, FL: Ralph Curtis Books, 1995.

Spawls, Stephen, et al. A Field Guide to the Reptiles of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002.


Underwood, G., and E. Kochva. "On the Affinities of the Burrowing Asps Atractaspis (Serpentes: Atractaspididae)." Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 107 (1993): 3-64.


Herpetological Association of Africa. P.O. Box 20142, Durban North, 4016 South Africa. Web site: <>

Bill Branch, PhD

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