Evolution and systematics

Most recent phylogenetic analyses have placed Leptotyphlopidae together with Anomalepididae (early blindsnakes) and Typhlopidae (blindsnakes) in Scolecophidia, one of two infraorders recognized within Serpentes (the clade that includes all living snakes). However, the interrelationships among the three groups of blindsnakes are poorly understood. The unusual form and position of the hyoid in Leptoty-phlopidae and Typhlopidae are suggestive of a close relationship between these two families. However, similarities in skull structure, visceral anatomy, and scalation patterns suggest that Anomalepididae and Typhlopidae are more closely related to each other than either is to Leptotyphlopidae. Unfortunately, the fossil record for Leptotyphlopidae is exceptionally poor, and the few fossil remains that are known offer little insight into the evolutionary history of the family. Interrelationships within Leptotyphlopidae are also poorly known. Nearly 20 species groups are tentatively recognized, but there have been no large-scale phylogenetic analyses that have addressed interspecific relationships within the family.

No subfamilies are recognized.

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