Contents

Foreword vii

How to use this book x

Advisory boards xiii

Contributing writers xv

Contributing illustrators xvi

Volume 7: Reptiles

What is a reptile? 3

Evolution of the reptiles 12

Structure and function 23

Behavior 34

Reptiles and humans 47

Conservation 59

Order TESTUDINES

Turtles and tortoises 65

Family: Pig-nose turtles 75

Family: Australo-American sideneck turtles 77

Family: Seaturtles 85

Family: Snapping turtles 93

Family: Central American river turtles 99

Family: Leatherback seaturtles 101

Family: New World pond turtles 105

Family: Eurasian pond and river turtles, and

Neotropical wood turtles 115

Family: American mud and musk turtles 121

Family: African sideneck turtles 129

Family: Big-headed turtles 135

Family: Afro-American river turtles 137

Family: Tortoises 143

Family: Softshell turtles 151

Order CROCODILIANS

Crocodiles, alligators, caimans, and gharials 157

Family: Gharials 167

Family: Alligators and caimans 171

Family: Crocodiles and false gharials 179

Order SPHENODONTIA Tuatara

Family: Tuatara 189

Order SQUAMATA

Lizards and snakes 195

Family: Angleheads, calotes, dragon lizards, and relatives 209

Family: Chameleons 223

Family: Anoles, iguanas, and relatives 243

Family: Geckos and pygopods 259

Family: Blindskinks 271

Family: Wormlizards 273

Family: Mole-limbed wormlizards 279

Family: Florida wormlizards 283

Family: Spade-headed wormlizards 287

Family: Night lizards 291

Family: Wall lizards, rock lizards, and relatives 297

Family: Microteiids 303

Family: Whiptail lizards, tegus, and relatives 309

Family: Girdled and plated lizards 319

Family: Skinks 327

Family: Alligator lizards, galliwasps, glass lizards, and relatives 339

Family: Knob-scaled lizards 347

Family: Gila monsters and Mexican beaded lizards . . 353 Family: Monitors, goannas, and earless monitors . . . 315

Family: Early blindsnakes 369

Family: Slender blindsnakes 373

Family: Blindsnakes 379

Family: False blindsnakes 387

Family: Shieldtail snakes 391

Family: Pipe snakes 395

Family: False coral snakes 399

Family: Sunbeam snakes 401

Family: Neotropical sunbeam snakes 405

Family: Boas 409

Family: Pythons 419

Family: Splitjaw snakes 429

Family: Woodsnakes and spinejaw snakes 433

Family: File snakes 439

Family: Vipers and pitvipers 445

Family: African burrowing snakes 461

Family: Colubrids 465

Family: Cobras, kraits, seasnakes, death adders, and relatives 483

For further reading 501

Organizations 507 Reptiles species list 520

Contributors to the first edition 509 Geologic time scale 571

Glossary 516 Index 573

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