Four viperine species are listed in CITES: Indian Daboia russelii is in Appendix III; Vipera wagneri is in Appendix II, and V. latifii and populations of V. ursinii from regions outside former Soviet territories are in Appendix I. Honduras has seven pitviper species listed in CITES Appendix III: Agk-istrodon bilineatus, Atropoides nummifer, Bothriechis schlegelii, Bothrops asper, Crotalus durissus, Porthidium nasutum, and P. ophryomegas. The IUCN lists 19 viperid taxa: 7 as Critically Endangered, 4 as Endangered, 7 as Vulnerable, and 1 as Data Deficient. Habitat destruction is a serious threat to viperid species throughout their range, and several species are threatened by intentional persecution by humans. Many species have extremely limited distributions (e.g., Bothrops insularis and B. alcatraz), leaving them vulnerable to local disturbances. Details of the natural history (including geographic distribution and species limits) of most viperids are not well known, and the number of species listed by CITES and the IUCN probably represents a serious underestimate of the conservation problems affecting this family.
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