Purpose

Polysomnography is used to help diagnose and evaluate a number of sleep disorders. For instance, it can help diagnose sleep apnea, a common disorder in middle-aged and elderly obese men, in which the muscles of the soft palate in the back of the throat relax and close off the airway during sleep. Sleep apnea may cause the person to snore loudly and gasp for air at night. It may also cause the person to be excessively drowsy and likely to fall asleep during the day. Another syndrome often...

Demographics

The prevalence rates of specific phobia in community samples range from 4 to 8 . Over the course of a lifetime, the prevalence estimates in community samples range from 7.2 to 11.3 . Individuals whose family members have specific phobia are at a higher risk for developing this disorder. Prior to assigning a diagnosis of specific phobia, clinicians need to consider whether a patient's fear is extreme in the context of a particular culture and whether the phobia...

Polysubstance dependence

Polysubstance dependence refers to a type of substance dependence disorder in which an individual uses at least three different classes of substances indiscriminately and does not have a favorite drug that qualifies for dependence on its own. Polysubstance dependence is listed as a substance disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in 2000 (also known as the DSM-IV-TR). The DSM-V-TR is the latest revision of the manual that it is used by mental health...

Prognosis

Major depression is increasingly viewed as a chronic condition for many people. Left untreated, a depressive episode may last four months or longer, regardless of the age of onset. While most people recover fully from a given depressive episode, eventual recurrence is common. Long-term studies of people with MDD indicate that about 60 of patients who have one episode of depression will have a second episode with each succeeding episode, the chances of a subsequent episode increase. For example,...

Prevention

The best way to avoid nicotine dependence and withdrawal is to avoid the use of tobacco products. See also Stress Substance abuse and related disorders American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington DC American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Brigham, Janet. Dying to Quit Why we Smoke and How we Stop. Washington DC John Henry Press, 1998. Galanter, Marc and Herbert D. Kleber, eds. Textbook of Substance Abuse...

Key Terms0

Glaucoma A group of eye diseases character- J ized by increased pressure within the eye signifi- s cant enough to damage eye tissue and structures. o If untreated, glaucoma results in blindness. e Psychosis Severe state that is characterized by loss of contact with reality and deterioration in normal social functioning examples are schizophrenia and paranoia. Psychosis is usually one feature of an over-arching disorder, not a disorder in itself. (Plural psychoses) effects of levodopa in...

Premature ejaculation

Premature ejaculation (PE) refers to the persistent or recurrent discharge of semen with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration, before the person wishes it, and earlier than he expects it. In making the diagnosis of PE, the clinician must take into account factors that affect the length of time that the man feels sexually excited. These factors include the age of the patient and his partner, the newness of the sexual partner, and the location and recent frequency...

Propranolol

Propranolol is classified as a beta blocker. It is sold in the United States under the brand name Inderal. When combined with the diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, it is sold under the brand name Inderide. Propranolol also is produced as a generic product by a number of generic manufacturers. Propranolol is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), angina, certain types of cardiac arrhythmias, certain types of cardiac output...

Description

Tricyclic antidepressants act to change the balance of naturally occurring chemicals in the brain that regulate the transmission of nerve impulses between cells. Trimipramine acts primarily to increase the concentration of norepinephrine and serotonin (both chemicals that stimulate nerve cells) and, to a lesser extent, to block the action of another brain chemical, acetylcholine. Trimipramine shares most of the properties of other tri-cyclic antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, amoxap-ine,...

Systematic desensitization

Systematic desensitization is a technique used to treat phobias and other extreme or erroneous fears based on principles of behavior modification. Systematic desensitization is used to help the client cope with phobias and other fears, and to induce relaxation. In progressive relaxation, one first tightens and then relaxes various muscle groups in the body. During the alternating clenching and relaxing, the client should be focusing on the contrast between the initial tension and the subsequent...

Trazodone

It is sold in the United States under the brand name Desyrel and is also available under its generic name. Trazodone is used to treat depression and to treat the combination of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Like most antidepressants, trazodone has also been used in limited numbers of patients to treat panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperac-tivity disorder, enuresis (bed-wetting), eating disorders such as bulimia...

Zyprexa see Olanzapine

The following list of symptoms is intended not for diagnosis, but to reveal patterns in symptoms and disorders and to provide a starting point for research or discussion with a health care provider. Not every symptom with all of its accompanying disorders could be included. narcissistic personality disorder Aggression Alzheimer's disease antisocial personality disorder borderline personality disorder conduct disorder intermittent explosive disorder may occur with tic disorders may occur with...

Wechsler adult intelligence scale

The Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) is an individually administered measure of intelligence, intended for adults aged 16-89. The WAIS is intended to measure human intelligence reflected in both verbal and performance abilities. Dr. David Wechsler, a clinical psychologist, believed that intelligence is a global construct, reflecting a variety of measurable skills and should be considered in the context of the overall personality. The WAIS is also administered as part of a test battery...

Meditate For Somatoform Disorders

Meditation can benefit people who are ill or overwhelmed by stress. It also promotes well-being in healthy people. In general, people who meditate regularly experience less anxiety and depression. They also report more enjoyment and appreciation of life, as well as better social relationships. Meditation produces a state of deep relaxation and a sense of balance, or equanimity. According to Michael J. Baime in Essentials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, meditation allows one to fully...

Sexual aversion disorder

Sexual aversion disorder is a disorder characterized by disgust, fear, revulsion, or lack of desire in consensual relationships involving genital contact. To understand sexual aversion disorder, one should first understand that there are circumstances in which it is normal for people to lose interest in sexual activity. The reader can then compare these situations to the loss of desire associated with serious sexual disorders, including sexual aversion disorder. There are a number of reasons...

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a depression that can range from mild to suicidal and can occur anytime after delivery up to one year later. Postpartum depression is an affective disorder (any mental disorder characterized by a consistent change in mood that affects thoughts and behaviors) that can occur after pregnancies of all duration, from spontaneous (not induced) abortions, also called miscarriages, to full-term deliveries. The depression can take a mild clinical course or it can range to...

Minerals and mental health

Iron is a trace mineral that is essential for formation of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. Iron is found in meat, poultry, and fish. Another form of iron that is not as well absorbed as the form in animal foods is found in whole or enriched grains, green leafy vegetables, dried beans and peas, and dried fruits. Consuming a food rich in vitamin C, such as orange juice, at the same time as an iron-containing plant food will enhance iron absorption from...

Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

Blindfolded Test Subject

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (SB FE) is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults, from age two through mature adulthood. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help place children in appropriate educational settings. It can help determine the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults, and assist in the diagnosis of a learning disability,...

Definition

Neglect occurs when a parent or other primary caretaker chooses not to fulfill their obligations to care for, provide for, or adequately supervise and monitor the activities of their child. Parental and caregiving obligations include the physical, emotional, and educational well-being of the child. Thus, neglect can also occur when the parent or caretaker does not seek adequate medical or dental care for the child. Another definition of neglect is when the parental figure does not provide...