Play therapy

Play therapy refers to a method of psychotherapy with children in which a therapist uses a child's fantasies and the symbolic meanings of his or her play as a medium for understanding and communication with the child. The aim of play therapy is to decrease those behavioral and emotional difficulties that interfere significantly with a child's normal functioning. Inherent in this aim is improved communication and understanding between the child and his parents. Less obvious goals include...

Valproic acid

Valproic acid is an anticonvulsant (anti-seizure) drug. In the United States, valproic acid is also known as valproate, and is sold under the brand name Depakene. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes valproic acid for the treatment of epilepsy and for mania that occurs with bipolar disorder (previously called manic-depressive disorder). Valproic acid is also approved for the prevention of migraine headaches. Valproic acid's properties in preventing seizures were first...

Phenelzine

Phenelzine is classified as a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor. In the United States, phenelzine is sold under the brand name Nardil. Phenelzine is used to treat certain types of serious depression and severe depression complicated by severe anxiety that do not respond to other antidepressant drugs. Phenelzine is a member of a class of drugs called monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Monoamine oxidase, or MAO, is an enzyme found throughout the body. In the brain, MAO breaks down norepinephrine and...

Risks

Peer groups often provide an example for negative and harmful behaviors. Cluster suicide is one such example. When a teen realizes that someone he or she knew has attempted or has committed suicide, the teen may see suicide as a viable option for him- or herself as well. For this reason, schools and local media should exercise caution when reporting such tragedies. Care must be taken not to portray the suicide glamorously or mythically. When parents try to protect their children by telling them...

Related issues

One group of people that is often overlooked in discussions of suicide is the friends and family bereaved by the suicide. It is estimated that each person who kills him- or herself leaves six survivors to deal with the aftermath. On the basis of this figure, there are at least 4.5 million survivors of suicide in the United States. In addition to the grief that ordinarily accompanies death, survivors of suicide often struggle with feelings of guilt and shame as well. In spite of a general...

Sexual dysfunctions

Sexual dysfunction disorders are problems that interfere with the initiation, consummation, or satisfaction with sex. They occur in both men and women and are independent of sexual orientation. Probably nowhere in human health do the body and mind interact more than during sex. There are four generally recognized phases of sexual activity, involving both mental and physical responses and are applicable to both men and women. These phases are in sequence desire or appetite fantasies or thoughts...

Limitations

In some organizations, there is a growing overlap between self-help efforts and community development. Critics maintain that focusing on issues such as crime prevention, affordable housing, and economic development drains time and effort from social support and mutual aid. Nevertheless, some organizations continue to develop both advocacy and support. The absence of professional guidance may mean that a member in need of formal psychotherapy or treatment may be discouraged from seeking...

Substance abuse and related disorders

Substance-related disorders are disorders of intoxication, dependence, abuse, and substance withdrawal caused by various substances, both legal and illegal. These substances include alcohol, amphetamines, caffeine, inhalants, nicotine, prescription medications that may be abused (such as sedatives), opioids (morphine, heroin), marijuana (cannabis), cocaine, hallucinogens, and phencyclidine (PCP). According to the mental health clinician's handbook, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental...

Alcohol and mental health

A high alcohol intake can interfere with normal sleep patterns, and thus can affect mood. Alcoholism is one of the most common causes of nutritional deficiencies in developed countries. Alcoholic beverages provide energy but virtually no vitamins or minerals. A person who consumes large amounts of alcohol will meet their energy needs but not their vitamin and mineral needs. In addition, extra amounts of certain vitamins are needed to break down alcohol in the body, further contributing to...

Precautions

Like all tricyclic antidepressants, nortriptyline should be used cautiously and with close physician supervision in people, especially the elderly, who have benign prostatic hypertrophy, urinary retention, and glaucoma, especially angle-closure glaucoma (the most severe form). Before starting treatment, people with these conditions should discuss the relative risks and benefits of treatment with their doctors to help determine if nortriptyline is the right antidepressant for them. A common...

Sleep disorders

Sleep disorders are chronic disturbances in the quan- er tity or quality of sleep that interfere with a person's ability to function normally. An estimated 15 of Americans have chronic sleep problems, while about 10 have occasional trouble sleeping. Sleep disorders are listed among the clinical syndromes in Axis I of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, also known as the DSM. They may be either primary (unrelated to any other disorder...

Prognosis

The prognosis of the patient with male orgasmic syndrome is dependent on whether the condition is lifelong or acquired and the condition's causes. Prognosis is best when it can be demonstrated that the condition is related to some extrinsic or environmental factor that can be corrected or ameliorated. The prognosis is also favorable in those cases that are due to a remedial organic condition such as a thyroid disorder or hypogonadism. The prognosis is guarded when the disorder is found to be...

Causes and symptoms

It is extremely difficult to study the brain and the underlying causes of psychiatric illness and understanding the chemistry of the brain is the key to unlocking the mystery of panic disorder. The amygdala is the part of the brain that causes fear and the response to stress. It has been implicated as a vital part of anxiety disorders. Sodium lactate, a chemical that the body produces when muscles are fatigued, and carbon dioxide are known to induce panic...

Trichotillomania

Individuals with trichotillomania repetitively pull out their own hair. Trichotillomania as an impulse-control disorder. Some researchers view it as a type of affective or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Nail-biting, skin-picking, and thumb-sucking are considered to be related conditions. Trichotillomania involves hair-pulling episodes that result in noticeable hair loss. Although any area of the body can be a target, the most common areas are the scalp, followed by the eyelashes, eyebrows, and...

Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood

In reactive attachment disorder, the normal bond between infant and parent is not established or is broken. Infants normally bond or form an emotional attachment, to a parent or other caregiver by the eighth month of life. From about the second through the eighth month, most infants will respond to attention from a variety of caregivers, if the caregivers are familiar. By the eighth month, however, normal infants have established a strong emotional preference for one or two primary caregivers....

Nutrition and the brain

A person's food intake affects mood, behavior, and brain function. A hungry person may feel irritable and restless, whereas a person who has just eaten a meal may feel calm and satisfied. A sleepy person may feel more productive after a cup of coffee and a light snack. A person who has consistently eaten less food or energy than needed over a long period of time may be apathetic and moody. The human brain has high energy and nutrient needs. Changes in energy or nutrient intake can alter both...

B Valerian

Valerian is an herbal remedy derived from the dried roots of the valerian plant, Valeriana officinalis. The plant belongs to the Valerianaceae family. It has been used for over a thousand years as a mild sedative and hypnotic (a preparation that brings on sleep). Valerian is native to Europe and parts of Asia it has since been introduced in the United States, placed under cultivation and now growing in the wild, as well. It is often cultivated for its pinkish white or lavender flowers as well...

Normal results

The scientific study of the physiological effects of meditation began in the early 1960s. These studies demonstrated that meditation affects metabolism, the endocrine system, the central nervous system, and the autonomic nervous system. In particular, there is a slowing of cardiac and respiratory rates, a decrease in blood pressure, and an increase in alpha brain waves. These effects are typical of reduced anxiety. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the medical benefits of...

Treatments

Because MDD can have a devastating impact on a person'slife, the importance of effective treatment cannot be overestimated. Treatment strategies have evolved over Colored positron emission tomography (PET) scans comparing the brain of a depressed person (top) with the brain of a healthy person. (Photo Reasearchers, Inc. Reproduced by permission.) See color insert for color version of photo. Colored positron emission tomography (PET) scans comparing the brain of a depressed person (top) with the...

The results of stigma

The stigmatization of mental disorders has a number of consequences for the larger society. Patients' refusal to seek treatment, noncompliance with treatment, and inability to find work has a high price tag. Disability related to mental illness accounts for fully 15 of the economic burden caused by all diseases in developed countries. Stigmatization of mental illness is an important factor in preventing persons with mental disorders from asking for help. This factor affects even mental health...

Demographics

Male orgasmic disorder is found in all races and ethnic groups. In the case of the lifelong type of the disorder, manifestations will occur around the age of puberty. In certain genetic hypogonadism disorders, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, certain bodily signs and symptoms may alert the physician. Similarly, in associated thyroid, testicular and pituitary abnormalities, there may be other manifestations of the underlying disorder. In the acquired type of male orgasmic disorder, the patient...

Quazepam

Quazepam belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines. These drugs ease anxiety and slow the central nervous system. In the United States quazepam is sold under brand name Doral. Quazepam is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of insomnia. Quazepam is unique in its drug properties in two ways. Several medications from the same class of drugs have an effect called rebound insomnia. This means that the insomnia becomes worse than the original...

Sleepwalking disorder

Sleepwalking disorder, also called somnambulism, is characterized by repeating episodes of motor activity during sleep such as sitting up in bed, rising, and walking around, among others. The person appears to be awake because their eyes are usually open and they can maneuver around objects, but is considered asleep. Sleepwalking disorder is one of several sleep disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, often called DSM-IV-TR, produced by the American...

Features of selfhelp groups

Accessibility and economy are appealing features of self-help groups. Since the groups are free, organizations such as AA and NA are very cost-effective. In addition, meetings are easy to locate through local newspaper announcements, hospitals, health care centers, churches, school counselors, and community agencies. For AA and sister organizations that encourage frequent attendance, hundreds of meetings may be held each week in large metropolitan areas. Furthermore, with the proliferation of...

Schizophreniform disorder

Schizophreniform disorder (SFD) is a time-limited illness wherein the sufferer has experienced at least two of the major symptoms of psychosis for longer than one month but fewer than six months. Hallucinations, delusions, and strange bodily movements or lack of movements (catatonic behavior) are all symptoms that may be observed. Additionally, minimal or peculiar speech, lack of drive to act on one's own behalf, bizarre behavior, a wooden quality to one's emotions or near-absent emotionality...

Coping with stress

Coping is defined as a person's patterns of response to stress. Many clinicians think that differences in attitudes toward and approaches to stressful events are the single most important factor in assessing a person's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses. A person's ability to cope with stress depends in part on his or her interpretation of the event. One person may regard a stressful event as a challenge that can be surmounted while another views it as a problem with no solution. The...

Preparation

In some cases (such as for MRI brain scanning or MRA), a chemical designed to increase image contrast may be given immediately before the exam. If a patient suffers from anxiety or claustrophobia, drugs may be given to help the patient relax. The patient must remove all metal objects (watches, jewelry, eye glasses, hair clips, etc.). Any magnetized objects (like credit and bank machine cards, audio tapes, etc.) should be kept far away from the MRI equipment because they can be erased. The...

Neurotransmitters mental disorders and medications

Impairment of dopamine-containing neurons in the brain is implicated in schizophrenia, a mental disease marked by disturbances in thinking and emotional reactions. Medications that block dopamine receptors in the brain, such as chlorpromazine and clozapine, have been used to alleviate the symptoms and help patients return to a normal social setting. In depression, which afflicts about 3.5 of the population, there appears to be abnormal excess or inhibition of signals that control mood,...

Current theories about the origin of mental disorders

Genetics is at this time an important area of research for psychiatric disorders. For example, a specific gene has been associated with bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depressive disorder), but unfortunately, the switch that controls the expression of the disorder is still unknown. It is presently thought that many genes go into the expression or nonexpression of any human characteristic, such as a facial feature or a certain aspect of mental health. Research done on identical...

Energy intake and mental health

Energy, often referred to as the calorie content of a food, is derived from the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol found in foods and beverages. Although vitamins and minerals are essential to the body, they provide no energy. The human brain is metabolically very active and uses about 20 to 30 of a person's energy intake at rest. Individuals who do not eat adequate calories from food to meet their energy requirements will experience changes in mental functioning. Simply skipping breakfast...

Carbohydrates and mental health

Carbohydrates include starches, naturally occurring and refined sugars, and dietary fiber. Foods rich in starches and dietary fiber include grain products like breads, rice, pasta and cereals, especially whole-grain products fruits and vegetables, especially starchy vegetables like potatoes. Foods rich in refined sugars include cakes, cookies, desserts, candy, and soft drinks. Carbohydrates significantly affect mood and behavior. Eating a meal high in carbohydrates triggers release of a hormone...

Effects of neglect

Consequences of neglect are generally cumulative, and often negatively affect the child's development. For example, poor nutrition has negative consequences on the child's physical and psychological development. If proper nutrients are not available at critical growth peri ods, the child's development will not follow the normal Z and usual pattern. Common physical and psychological gl reactions to neglect include stunted growth, chronic med- ct ical problems, inadequate bone and muscle growth,...

Current theory and future directions

The biopsychosocial model of mental illness All of the above factors are most succinctly summarized in terms of the biopsychosocial model of mental illness. Biological contributions, thoughts and perceptions, social pressures, and environmental stressors, the presence or absence of nurturing and consistency of love, core values, and self-worth are just a few of the things that contribute to making up the psychological uniqueness of every human being on the planet. In addition to the above,...

Phonological disorder

Phonological disorder occurs when a child does not develop the ability to produce some or all sounds necessary for speech that are normally used at his or her age. Phonological disorder is sometimes referred to as articulation disorder, developmental articulation disorder, or speech sound production disorder. If there is no known cause, it is sometimes called developmental phonological disorder. If the cause is known to be of neurological origin, the names dysarthria or dysprax-ia are often...

Seasonal affective disorder

Seasonal affective disorder, often abbreviated as SAD, is a type of mood disorder that follows an annual pattern consistent with the seasons. The most common course for SAD includes an onset of depressive symptoms late in the fall, continuation of symptoms throughout winter, and remission of symptoms in the spring. According to the handbook used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental disorders, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition text revised, or...

Recommended dosage

As with any antidepressant, the dose of nortriptyline must be carefully adjusted by the physician to produce the desired therapeutic effect. Nortriptyline is available in 10-, 25-, 50-, and 75-mg capsules as well as in a 10 mg 5mL solution. The usual dosage for nortriptyline is 25 mg given three or four times each day. The optimum total dose of the drug is 50 to 150 mg daily. Total dosage in excess of 150 mg is not recommended. The recommended dose for older adults (over age 60) and adolescents...

Causes of stress

The causes of stress may include any event or situation that a person considers a threat to his or her resources or coping strategies. A certain amount of stress is a normal part of life it represents a person's response to inevitable changes in his or her physical or social environment. Moreover, positive events can generate stress as well as negative events. Graduating from college, for example, is accompanied by stress related to employment or possible geographical relocation and the stress...

Schizoid personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder is characterized by a persistent withdrawal from social relationships and lack of emotional responsiveness in most situations. It is sometimes referred to as a pleasure deficiency because of the seeming inability of the person affected to experience joyful or pleasurable responses to life situations. A person with schizoid personality disorder has little or no interest in developing close interpersonal relationships. They appear aloof, introverted and prefer being...

Disordersi

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a street drug known as nd angel dust that causes physiological changes to the nervous and circulatory system, disturbances in thinking a and behavior, and can cause hallucinations, psychotic d disorder, mood disorder, and anxiety disorder. di Phencyclidine (PCP) is the best known of several related drugs including ketamine, cyclohexamine, and dizocilpine. PCP was first synthesized by a pharmaceutical company in the 1950s and sold under the brand names Sernyl and Sernylan...

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is the most chronic and disabling of the severe mental disorders, associated with abnormalities of brain structure and function, disorganized speech and behavior, delusions, and hallucinations. It is sometimes called a psychotic disorder or a psychosis. People diagnosed with schizophrenia do not always have the same set of symptoms in addition, a given patient's symptoms may change over time. Since the nine- c teenth century, doctors have recognized different subtypes Z of the...

Schizotypal personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by an ongoing pattern in which the affected person distances him- or herself from social and interpersonal relationships. Affected people typically have an acute discomfort when put in circumstances where they must relate to others. These individuals are also prone to cognitive and perceptual distortions and a display a variety of eccentric behaviors that others often find confusing. People with schizotypal personality disorder are more...

Separation anxiety disorder

Like many childhood concerns, separation anxiety is normal at certain developmental stages. For example, when a child between the ages of eight and 14 months is separated from her mother or other primary caretaker, she may experience distress. This is normal. However, separation anxiety that occurs at later ages is considered a disorder because it is outside of normal developmental expectations, and because of the intensity of the child's emotional response. Separation anxiety disorder occurs...

Sertraline

Sertraline is an antidepressant that belongs to the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In the in United States it is sold under the brand name Zoloft. Sertraline is used to treat depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Serotonin, one of the neurotransmitters, is a brain chemical that carries nerve impulses from one nerve cell to another. Researchers think that depression and certain other mental disorders...

Sleep terror disorder

Sleep terror disorder is defined as repeated temporary arousal from sleep, during which the affected person appears and acts extremely frightened. Sleep terror disorder is sometimes referred to as pavor nocturnus when it occurs in children, and incubus when it occurs in adults. Sleep terrors are also sometimes called night terrors, though sleep terror is the preferred term, as episodes can occur during daytime naps as well as at night. Sleep terror is a disorder that primarily affects children,...

Specific phobias

Specific phobia is a type of disorder in which the affected individual displays a marked and enduring fear of specific situations or objects. Individuals with specific phobias experience extreme fear as soon as they encounter a defined situation or object, a phobic stimulus. For example, an individual with a specific phobia of dogs will become anxious when coerced to confront a dog. The specific phobia triggers a lot of distress or significantly impairs an affected individual. Mental health...

Vaginismus

Vaginismus occurs when the muscles around the outer third of the vagina contract involuntarily when vaginal penetration is attempted during sexual intercourse. Vaginismus is a sexual disorder that is characterized by the outer third of the vaginal muscles tightening, often painfully. A woman with vaginismus does not willfully or intentionally contract her vaginal muscles. However, when the vagina is going to be penetrated, the muscles tighten spontaneously due to psychological or other reasons....

Support groups

Support groups are an informal resource that attempts to provide healing components to a variety of problems and challenges. An informal support outside of family, friends, or professionals often provides greater understanding, more similarity (from individuals experiencing similar life events), an opportunity for empathy and altruism, and a sense of identity for participants. Learning new ways to handle challenges, cope with changes, and maintain new behaviors are all important aspects of the...

Diagnosis

The diagnosis is usually readily made on the basis of the patient's history and the presence of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Male orgasmic disorder may be part of a complex of sexual malfunctioning that may include erectile dysfunction, abnormalities in ejaculation (such as premature ejaculation or retrograde ejaculation), and hypoactive sexual desire disorder. In order to differentiate between the various potential disorders, the physician may request laboratory tests and or may perform...

Stereotypic movement disorder

Stereotypic movement disorder is a disorder characterized by repeated, rhythmic, purposeless movements or activities such as head banging, nail biting, or body rocking. These movements either cause self-injury or severely interfere with normal activities. Until 1994, the American Psychiatric Association referred to stereotypic movement disorder as stereotypy habit disorder. Stereotypic movements were first described as a psychiatric symptom in the early 1900s. Since then, they have been...

Purpose

Polysomnography is used to help diagnose and evaluate a number of sleep disorders. For instance, it can help diagnose sleep apnea, a common disorder in middle-aged and elderly obese men, in which the muscles of the soft palate in the back of the throat relax and close off the airway during sleep. Sleep apnea may cause the person to snore loudly and gasp for air at night. It may also cause the person to be excessively drowsy and likely to fall asleep during the day. Another syndrome often...

Polysubstance dependence

Polysubstance dependence refers to a type of substance dependence disorder in which an individual uses at least three different classes of substances indiscriminately and does not have a favorite drug that qualifies for dependence on its own. Polysubstance dependence is listed as a substance disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published in 2000 (also known as the DSM-IV-TR). The DSM-V-TR is the latest revision of the manual that it is used by mental health...

Prevention

The best way to avoid nicotine dependence and withdrawal is to avoid the use of tobacco products. See also Stress Substance abuse and related disorders American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington DC American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Brigham, Janet. Dying to Quit Why we Smoke and How we Stop. Washington DC John Henry Press, 1998. Galanter, Marc and Herbert D. Kleber, eds. Textbook of Substance Abuse...

Key Terms0

Glaucoma A group of eye diseases character- J ized by increased pressure within the eye signifi- s cant enough to damage eye tissue and structures. o If untreated, glaucoma results in blindness. e Psychosis Severe state that is characterized by loss of contact with reality and deterioration in normal social functioning examples are schizophrenia and paranoia. Psychosis is usually one feature of an over-arching disorder, not a disorder in itself. (Plural psychoses) effects of levodopa in...

Description

A good place to begin a discussion of the different theories about narcissism is with the observation that NPD exists as a diagnostic category only in DSM-IV-TR, which is an American diagnostic manual. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10, the European equivalent of DSM) lists only eight personality disorders. What DSM-IV-TR defines as narcissistic personality disorder, ICD-10 lumps together with eccentric, impulsive-type,...

Premature ejaculation

Premature ejaculation (PE) refers to the persistent or recurrent discharge of semen with minimal sexual stimulation before, on, or shortly after penetration, before the person wishes it, and earlier than he expects it. In making the diagnosis of PE, the clinician must take into account factors that affect the length of time that the man feels sexually excited. These factors include the age of the patient and his partner, the newness of the sexual partner, and the location and recent frequency...

Propranolol

Propranolol is classified as a beta blocker. It is sold in the United States under the brand name Inderal. When combined with the diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide, it is sold under the brand name Inderide. Propranolol also is produced as a generic product by a number of generic manufacturers. Propranolol is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), angina, certain types of cardiac arrhythmias, certain types of cardiac output...

Systematic desensitization

Systematic desensitization is a technique used to treat phobias and other extreme or erroneous fears based on principles of behavior modification. Systematic desensitization is used to help the client cope with phobias and other fears, and to induce relaxation. In progressive relaxation, one first tightens and then relaxes various muscle groups in the body. During the alternating clenching and relaxing, the client should be focusing on the contrast between the initial tension and the subsequent...

Trazodone

It is sold in the United States under the brand name Desyrel and is also available under its generic name. Trazodone is used to treat depression and to treat the combination of symptoms of anxiety and depression. Like most antidepressants, trazodone has also been used in limited numbers of patients to treat panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention-deficit hyperac-tivity disorder, enuresis (bed-wetting), eating disorders such as bulimia...

Zyprexa see Olanzapine

The following list of symptoms is intended not for diagnosis, but to reveal patterns in symptoms and disorders and to provide a starting point for research or discussion with a health care provider. Not every symptom with all of its accompanying disorders could be included. narcissistic personality disorder Aggression Alzheimer's disease antisocial personality disorder borderline personality disorder conduct disorder intermittent explosive disorder may occur with tic disorders may occur with...

Wechsler adult intelligence scale

The Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS) is an individually administered measure of intelligence, intended for adults aged 16-89. The WAIS is intended to measure human intelligence reflected in both verbal and performance abilities. Dr. David Wechsler, a clinical psychologist, believed that intelligence is a global construct, reflecting a variety of measurable skills and should be considered in the context of the overall personality. The WAIS is also administered as part of a test battery...

Meditate For Somatoform Disorders

Meditation can benefit people who are ill or overwhelmed by stress. It also promotes well-being in healthy people. In general, people who meditate regularly experience less anxiety and depression. They also report more enjoyment and appreciation of life, as well as better social relationships. Meditation produces a state of deep relaxation and a sense of balance, or equanimity. According to Michael J. Baime in Essentials of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, meditation allows one to fully...

Sexual aversion disorder

Sexual aversion disorder is a disorder characterized by disgust, fear, revulsion, or lack of desire in consensual relationships involving genital contact. To understand sexual aversion disorder, one should first understand that there are circumstances in which it is normal for people to lose interest in sexual activity. The reader can then compare these situations to the loss of desire associated with serious sexual disorders, including sexual aversion disorder. There are a number of reasons...

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a depression that can range from mild to suicidal and can occur anytime after delivery up to one year later. Postpartum depression is an affective disorder (any mental disorder characterized by a consistent change in mood that affects thoughts and behaviors) that can occur after pregnancies of all duration, from spontaneous (not induced) abortions, also called miscarriages, to full-term deliveries. The depression can take a mild clinical course or it can range to...

Minerals and mental health

Iron is a trace mineral that is essential for formation of hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen to cells throughout the body. Iron is found in meat, poultry, and fish. Another form of iron that is not as well absorbed as the form in animal foods is found in whole or enriched grains, green leafy vegetables, dried beans and peas, and dried fruits. Consuming a food rich in vitamin C, such as orange juice, at the same time as an iron-containing plant food will enhance iron absorption from...

Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale

Blindfolded Test Subject

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (SB FE) is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults, from age two through mature adulthood. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help place children in appropriate educational settings. It can help determine the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults, and assist in the diagnosis of a learning disability,...