1. Ho AK, Iansek R, Marigliani C, Bradshaw JL, Gates S. Speech impairment in a large sample of patients with Parkinson's disease. Behav Neurol 1998; 11:131-137.
2. Logemann JA, Fisher HB, Boshes B, Blonsky ER. Frequency and coocurrence of vocal tract dysfunctions in the speech of a large sample of Parkinson patients. J Speech Hear Disord 1978; 43:47-57.
3. Darley FL, Aronson AE, Brown JR. Motor Speech Disorders. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1975.
4. Sapir S, Ramig L, Hoyt P, et al. Phonatory-Respiratory effort (LSVT®) vs. respiratory effort treatment for hypokinetic dysarthria: comparing speech loudness and quality before and 12 months after treatment. Folia Phoniatrica 2002; 54:296-303.
5. Miller N, Noble E, Jones D, Burn D. Life with communication changes in Parkinson's disease. Age Ageing 2006; 35:235-239.
6. Pitcairn TK, Clemie S, Gray JM, Pentland B. Impressions of parkinsonian patients from their recorded voices. Br J Disord Commun 1990; 25:85-92.
7. Leopold NA, Kagel MA. Laryngeal deglutition movement in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 1997; 48:373-375.
8. Sharkawi AE, Ramig L, Logemann JA, et al. Swallowing and voice effects of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT®): a pilot study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72:31-36.
9. Logemann JA. Evaluation and Treatment of Swallowing Disorders. Texas: Pro-Ed, 1998.
10. Robbins J, Logemann JA, Kirshner H. Swallowing and speech production in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1986; 11:283-287.
11. Larson K, Ramig LO, Scherer RC. Acoustic and glottographic voice analysis during drug-related fluctuations in Parkinson's disease. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 1994; 2:211-226.
12. Yorkston KM. Treatment efficacy: dysarthria. J Speech Hear Res 1996; 39:S46-S57.
13. Helm N. Management of palilalia with a pacing board. J Speech Hear Disord 1979; 44:350-353.
14. Ramig LO, Countryman S, Thompson LL, Horii Y. Comparison of two forms of intensive speech treatment for Parkinson disease. J Speech Hear Res 1995; 38:1232-1251.
15. Ramig LO, Countryman S, O'Brien C, Hoehn M, Thompson L. Intensive speech treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease: short and long term comparison of two techniques. Neurology 1996; 47:1496-1504.
16. Ward E, Theodoros D, Murdoch B, et al. Changes in maximum capacity tongue function following the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment program. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 2000; 8:331-335.
17. Spielman JL, Borod JC, Ramig LO. The effects of intensive voice treatment on facial expressiveness in Parkinson disease: preliminary data. Cogn Behav Neurol 2003; 16:177-188.
18. Liotti M, Ramig LO, Vogel D, et al. Hypophonia in Parkinson's disease: neural correlates of voice treatment revealed by PET. Neurology 2003; 60:432-440.
19. Leanderson R, Meyerson BA, Persson A. Lip muscle function in Parkinsonian dysarthria. Acta Otolaryngol 1972; 74:350-357.
20. Leanderson R, Meyerson BA, Persson, A. Effect of L-dopa on speech in Parkinsonism an EMG study of labial articulatory function. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1971; 43:679-681.
21. Baker KK, Ramig LO, Luschei ES, Smith ME. Thyroarytenoid muscle activity associated with hypophonia in Parkinson disease and aging. Neurology 1998; 51(6):1592-1598.
22. Hansen DG, Gerratt BR, Ward PH. Cinegraphic observations of laryngeal function in Parkinson's disease. Laryngoscope 1984; 94:348-353.
23. Estenne M, Hubert M, Troyer AD. Respiratory-muscle involvement in Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 1984; 311:1516-1517.
24. Ackermann H, Ziegler W. Articulatory deficits in Parkinsonian dysarthria. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1991; 54:1093-1098.
25. Hoodin RB, Gilbert HR. Nasal airflows in parkinsonian speakers. J Commun Disord 1989; 22:169-180.
26. Ho AK, Bradshaw JL, Iansek R, Alfredson R. Speech volume regulation in Parkinson's disease: effects of implicit cues and explicit instructions. Neuropsychologia 1999; 37:1453-1460.
27. Ho AK, Bradshaw JL, Iansek T. Volume perception in parkinsonian speech. Mov Disord 2000; 15:1125-1131.
28. Sapir S, Spielman J, Ramig LO, et al. Effects of intensive voice treatment (LSVT®) on vowel articulation in dysarthric individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease: acoustic and perceptual findings. J Speech Lang Hear Res. In Press.
29. Goberman AM. Correlation between acoustic speech characteristics and non-speech motor performance in Parkinson Disease. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11:CR109-CR116.
30. Sapir S, Pawlas A, Ramig L, et al. Voice and speech abnormalities in Parkinson disease: relation to severity of motor impairment, duration of disease, medication, depression, gender and age. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 2001; 9(4):213-226.
31. Darley FL, Aronson AE, Brown JR. Clusters of deviant speech dimensions in the dysarthrias. J Speech Hear Res 1969; 12:462-469.
32. Darley FL, Aronson A, Brown J. Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. J Speech Hear Res 1969; 12:246-269.
33. Fox C, Ramig L. Vocal sound pressure level and self-perception of speech and voice in men and women with idiopathic Parkinson disease. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 1997; 2:29-42.
34. Ho AK, Iansek R, Bradshaw JL. Motor instability in parkinsonian speech intensity. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 2001; 14:109-116.
35. Rosen KM, Kent RD, Duffy JR. Task-based profile of vocal intensity decline in Parkinson's disease. Folia Phoniatr Logop 2005; 57(1):28-37.
36. Stewart C, Winfield L, Hunt A, et al. Speech dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 1995; 10(5):562-565.
37. Metter EJ, Hanson WR. Clinical and acoustical variability in hypokinetic dysarthria. J Commun Disord 1986; 19:347-366.
38. King J, Ramig L, Lemke JH, et al. Parkinson's disease: longitudinal changes in acoustic parameters of phonation. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 1994; 2:29-42.
39. Zwirner P, Murry T, Woodson GE. Phonatory function of neurologically impaired patients. J Commun Disord 1991; 24:287-300.
40. Ramig L, Scherer RC, Titze IR, Ringel SP. Acoustic analysis of voices of patients with neurologic disease: rationale and preliminary data. Ann Otorhinolaryngol 1988; 97:164-172.
41. Smith ME, Ramig LO, Dromey C, Perez KS, Samandari R. Intensive voice treatment in Parkinson's disese: laryngostroboscopic findings. J Voice 1995; 9:453-459.
42. Perez KS, Ramig LO, Smith ME, Dromey C. The Parkinson larynx: tremor and videostro-boscopic findings. J Voice 1996; 10:354-361.
43. Gerratt BR, Hansen DG, Berke GS. Glottographic measures of laryngeal function in individuals with abnormal motor control. In: Baer T, Sasaki C, Harris K, eds. Laryngeal Function in Phonation and Respiration. Boston: College-Hill Press, 1987.
44. Blumin JH, Pcolinsky DE, Atkins JP. Laryngeal findings in advanced Parkinson's disease. Ann Otolrhinollaryngol 2004; 113:253-258.
45. Hirose H, Joshita Y. Laryngeal behavior in patients with disorders of the central nervous system. In: Hirano M, Kirchner JA, Bless DM, eds. Neurolaryngology: Recent Advances. Boston: Little Brown, 1987.
46. Luschei ES, Ramig LO, Baker KL, Smith ME. Discharge characteristics of laryngeal single motor units during phonation in young and older adults and in persons with Parkinson disease. J Neurophysiol 1999; 81:2131-2139.
47. Gallena S, Smith PJ, Zeffiro T, Ludlow CL. Effects of levodopa on laryngeal muscle activity for voice onset and offset in Parkinson disease. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2001; 44:1284-1299.
48. Solomon NP, Hixon TJ. Speech breathing in Parkinson's disease. J Speech Hear Res 1993; 36:294-310.
49. Schiffman PL. A "saw-tooth" pattern in Parkinson's disease. Chest 1985; 87:24-126.
50. Vincken WG, Gauthier SG, Dollfuss RE, Hanson RE, Darauay CM, Cosio MG. Involvement of upper-airway muscles in extrapyramidal disorders, a cause of airflow limitation. N Engl J Med 1984; 311(7):438-442.
51. Murdoch BE, Chenery HJ, Bowler S, Ingram JC. Respiratory function in Parkinson's subjects exhibiting a perceptible speech deficit: a kinematic and spirometric analysis. J Speech Hear Disord 1989; 54:610-626.
52. Forrest K, Weismer G, Turner G. Kinematic, acoustic and perceptual analysis of connected speech produced by Parkinsonian and normal geriatric adults. J Acoust Soc Am 1989; 85:2608-2622.
53. Ackermann H, Konczak J, Hertrich I. The temporal control of repetitive articulatory movements in Parkinson's disease. Brain Lang 1997; 56:312-319.
54. Caliguiri MP. Labial kinematics during speech in patients with Parkinsonian rigidity. Brain 1987; 110:1033-1044.
55. Caliguiri MP. The influence of speaking rate on articulatory hypokinesia in Parkinsonian dysarthria. Brain Lang 1989; 36:493-502.
56. Conner NP, Abbs JH. Task-dependent variations in Parkinsonian motor impairments. Brain 1991; 114:321-332.
57. Conner NP, Abbs JH, Cole KJ, Gracco VL. Parkinsonian deficits in serial mulitarticulate movements for speech. Brain 1989; 112(Pt 4):997-1009.
58. Hunker CJ, Abbs JH, Barlow SM. The relationship between Parkinsonian rigidity and hypokinesia in the orofacial system: quantitative analysis. Neurology 1982; 32:749-754.
59. Dromey C. Articulatory kinematics in patients with Parkinson's disease using different speech treatment approaches. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 2001; 8:155-161.
60. Gath I, Yair E. Analysis of vocal tract parameters in Parkinsonian speech. J Acoust Soc Am 1988; 84:1628-1634.
61. Netsell R, Daniel B, Celesia GG. Acceleration and weakness in Parkinsonian dysarthria. J Speech Hear Disord 1975; 40:170-178.
62. Caliguiri MP, Abbs JH. Response properties of the perioral reflex in Parkinson's disease. Exp Neurol 1987; 98:563-572.
63. Schneider JS, Diamond SG, Markham CH. Deficits in orofacial sensorimotor function in Parkinson's disease. Ann Neurol 1986; 19:275-282.
64. Caliguiri MP. Labial kinematics during speech in patients with parkinsonian rigidity. Brain 1987; 110:1033-1044.
65. Goberman AM, Elmer LW. Acoustic analysis of clear versus conversational speech in individuals with Parkinson disease. J Commun Disord 2005; 38:215-230.
66. Koller WC. Sensory symptoms in PD. Neurology 1984; 34:957-959.
67. Diamond SG, Schneider JS, Markham CH. Oral sensorimotor defects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Adv Neurol 1987; 45:335-338.
68. Graber S, Hertrich I, Daum I, Spieker S, Ackermann H. Speech perception deficits in Parkinson's disease: underestimation of time intervals compromises identification of durational phonetic contrasts. Brain Lang 2002; 82:65-74.
69. Fox CM, Morrison CE, Ramig LO, et al. Current perspectives on the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) for individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Am J Speech Lang Pathol 2002; 11:111-123.
70. Ramig LO, Pawlas A, Countryman S. The Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT): a Practical Guide to Treating the Voice and Speech Disorders in Parkinson Disease. Iowa City, IA: National Center for Voice and Speech, 1995.
71. Curio G, Neuloh G, Numminen J, Jousmaki V, Hari R. Speaking modifies voice-evoked activity in the human auditory cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 2000; 9:183-191.
72. Numminen J, Curio G. Differential effects of overt, covert and replayed speech on vowel-evoked responses of the human auditory cortex. Neurosci Lett 1999; 27:29-32.
73. Paus T, Perry DW, Zatorre RJ, Worsley KJ, Evans AC. Modulation of cerebral blood flow in the human auditory cortex during speech: role of motor-to-sensory discharges. Eur J Neurosci 1996; 8:2236-2246.
74. Desmurget M, Grafton S, Vindras P, Grea H, Turner RS. Basal ganglia network mediates the control of movement amplitude. Exp Brain Res 2003; 153:197-209.
75. Albin RL, Young AB, Penny JB. The functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Trends Neurosci 1989; 12:366-375.
76. Penny JB, Young AB. Speculations on the functional anatomy of basal ganglia disorders. Ann Rev Neurosci 1983; 6:73-94.
77. Berardelli A, Dick JP, Rothwell JC, Day BL, Marsden CD. Scaling of the size of the first agonist EMG burst during rapid wrist movements in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1986; 49(11):1273-1279.
78. Maschke M, Gomez CM, Tuite PJ, Konczak J. Dysfunction of the basal ganglia, but not the cerebellum, impairs kinaesthesia. Brain 2003; 126:2312-2322.
79. Stroudley J, Walsh M. Radiographic assessment of dysphagia in Parkinson's disease. Br J Radiology 1991; 64:890-893.
80. De Letter M, Santens P, Van Borsel J. The effects of levodopa on word intelligibility in Parkinson's disease. J Commun Disord 2005; 38:187-196.
81. Goberman A, Coelho C, Robb M. Phonatory characteristics of parkinsonian speech before and after morning medication: the ON and OFF states. J Commun Disord 2002; 35:217-239.
82. Jiang J, Lin E, Wang J, Hanson DG. Glottographic measures before and after levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:1287-1294.
83. Sanabria J, Ruiz PG, Gutierrez R, et al. The effect of levodopa on vocal function in Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol 2001; 24:99-102.
84. Cahill LM, Murdoch BE, Theodoros DG, Triggs EJ, Charles BG, Yao AA. Effect of oral levodopa treatment on articulatory function in Parkinson's disease: preliminary results. Motor Control 1998; 2:161-172.
85. Kompoliti K, Wang QE, Goetz CG, Leurgans S, Raman R. Effects of central dopaminer-gic stimulation by apomorphine on speech in Parkinson's disease. Neurology 2000; 54:458-462.
86. Trail M, Fox C, Ramig LO, Sapir S, Howard J, Lai EC. Speech treatment for Parkinson's disease. Neurorehabilitation 2005; 20:205-221.
87. Biary N, Pimental PA, Langenberg PW. A double-blind trial of clonazepan in the treatment of parkinsonian dysarthria. Neurology 1988; 38:255-258.
88. Pahwa R, Lyons KE, Wilkinson SB, et al. Long-term evaluation of deep brain stimulation of the thalamus. J Neurosurg 2006; 104:506-512.
89. Rodriguez-Oroz MC, Obeso JA, Lang AE, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: a multicentre study with 4 years follow-up. Brain 2005; 128:2240-2249.
90. Krack P, Batir A, Van Blercom N, et al. Five-year follow-up of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in advanced Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2003 ; 349:1925-1934.
91. Santens P, De Letter M, Van Borsel J, De Reuck J, Caemaert J. Lateralized effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on different aspects of speech in Parkinson's disease. Brain Lang 2003; 87:253-258.
92. Wang E, Verhagen Metman L, Bakay R, Arzbaecher J, Bernard B. The effect of unilateral electrostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on respiratory/phonatory subsystems of speech production in Parkinson's disease-a preliminary report. Clin Linguist Phon 2003; 17:283-289.
93. Gentil M, Pinto S, Pollak P, Benabid AL. Effect of bilateral stimulation of the subthala-mic nucleus on parkinsonian dysarthria. Brain Lang 2003; 85:190-196.
94. Gentil M, Garcia-Ruiz P, Pollak P, Benabid AL. Effect of bilateral deep-brain stimulation on oral control of patients with parkinsonism. Eur Neurol 2000; 44:147-152.
95. Gentil M, Chauvin P, Pinto S, Pollak P, Benabid AL. Effect of bilateral stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on parkinsonian voice. Brain Lang 2001; 78:233-240.
96. Pinto S, Gentil M, Fraix V, Benabid AL, Pollak P. Bilateral subthalamic stimulation effects on oral force control in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2003; 250:179-187.
97. Dromey C, Kumar R, Lang AE, Lozano AM. An investigation of the effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on acoustic measures of voice. Mov Disord 2000; 15:1132-1138.
Rousseaux M, Krystkowiak P, Kozlowski O, Ozsancak C, Blond S, Destee A. Effects of subthalamic nucleus stimulation on parkinsonian dysarthria and speech intelligibility. J Neurol 2004; 251:327-334.
Tornqvist AL, Schalen L, Rehncrona S. Effects of different electrical parameter settings on the intelligibility of speech in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord 2005; 20:416-423.
Dias AE, Barbosa ER, Coracini K, Maia F, Marcolin MA, Fregni F. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on voice and speech in Parkinson's disease. Acta Neurol Scand 2006; 113:92-99.
Pagni CA, Zeme S, Zenga F. Further experience with extradural motor cortex stimulation for treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease. Report of 3 new cases. J Neurosurg Sci 2003; 47:189-193.
Schulz GM, Peterson T, Sapienza CM, Greer M, Friedman W. Voice and speech characteristics of persons with Parkinson's disease pre- and post-pallidotomy surgery: preliminary findings. J Speech Lang Hear Res 1999; 42:1176-1194.
Schulz GM, Greer M, Friedman W. Changes in vocal intensity in Parkinson's disease following pallidotomy surgery. J Voice 2000; 14:589-606.
Uitti RJ, Wharen RE, Duffy JR, et al. Unilateral pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease: speech, motor, and neuropsychological outcome measurements. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2000; 6:133-143.
Scott R, Gregory R, Hines N, et al. Neuropsychological, neurological and functional outcome following pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease. A consecutive series of eight simultaneous bilateral and twelve unilateral procedures. Brain 1998; 121:659-675. Nagulic M, Davidovic J, Nagulic I. Parkinsonian voice acoustic analysis in real-time after stereotactic thalamotomy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2005; 83:115-121. Parkin S, Nandi D, Giladi N, et al. Lesioning the subthalamic nucleus in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2001; 77:68-72. Farrell A, Theodoros D, Ward E, Hall B, Silburn P. Effects of neurosurgical management of Parkinson's disease on speech characteristics and oromotor function. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2005; 48:5-20.
Berke GS, Gerratt B, Kreiman J, Jackson K. Treatment of Parkinson hypophonia with percutaneous collagen augmentation. Laryngoscope 1999; 109:1295-1299. Kim SH, Kearney JJ, Atkins JP. Percutaneous laryngeal collagen augmentation for treatment of parkinsonian hypophonia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002; 126:653-656. Born LJ, Harned RH, Rikkers LF, Pfeiffer RF, Quigley EM. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: role in dysphagia and response to myotomy. Mov Disord 1996; 11:53-58.
Hartelius L, Svensson P. Speech and swallowing symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis: a survey. Folia Phoniatrica Logopedica 1994; 46:9-17.
Scott S, Caird FL. Speech therapy for Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1983; 46:140-144.
Rubow RT, Swift E. A microcomputer-based wearable biofeedback device to improve transfer of treatment in Parkinsonian dysarthria. J Speech Hear Disord 1985; 50:178-185. McNamara P, Obler LK, Au R, et al. Speech monitoring skills in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and normal aging. Brain Lang 1992; 42:38-51. Fisher B, Petzinger GM, Nixon K, et al. Exercise-induced behavioral recovery and neu-roplasticity in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse basal ganglia. J Neurosci Res 2004; 77:378-390.
Tillerson J, Cohen AD, Philhower J, et al. Forced limb-use effects on the behavioral and neurochemical effects of 6-hydroxydopamine. J Neurosci 2001; 21:4427-4435. Ramig LO, Sapir S, Countryman S, et al. Intensive voice treatment (LSVT®) for individuals with Parkinson's disease: a 2 year follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001; 71:493-498.
Tillerson J, Caudle WM, Reveron ME, Miller GW. Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attenuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Neuroscience 2003; 119:899-911.
120. Ramig LO, Bonitati C, Lemke J, et al. Voice treatment for patients with Parkinson disease: development of an approach and preliminary efficacy data. JMed Speech Lang Pathol 1994; 2:191-209.
121. Dromey C, Ramig LO, Johnson A. Phonatory and articulatory changes associated with increased vocal intensity in Parkinson disease: a case study. J Speech Hear Res 1995; 38:751-763.
122. Baumgartner C, Sapir S, Ramig LO. Voice quality changes following phonatory-respiratory effort treatment (LSVT®) versus respiratory effort treatment for individuals with Parkinson disease. J Voice 2001; 15(1):105-114.
123. Ramig LO, Sapir S, Fox C, Countryman S. Changes in vocal intensity following intensive voice treatment (LSVT®) in individuals with Parkinson disease: A comparison with untreated patients and with normal age-matched controls. Mov Disord 2001; 16:79-83.
124. Countryman S, Ramig LO. Effects of intensive voice therapy on speech deficits associated with bilateral thalamotomy in Parkinson's disease: a case study. J Med Speech Lang Pathol 1993; 1(4):233-249.
125. Ramig LO, Dromey C. Aerodynamic mechanisms underlying treatment-related changes in SPL in patients with Parkinson disease. J Speech Hear Res 1996; 39:798-807.
126. Schulman R. Articulatory dynamics of loud and normal speech. J Acoustic Soc Am 1989; 85:295-312.
127. Yorkston KM, Miller RM, Strand EA. Management of Speech and Swallowing Disorders in Degenerative Disease (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
128. Deane KH, Ellis-Hill C, Jones D, et al. Systematic review of paramedical therapies for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2002; 17:984-991.
129. De Angelis EC, Mourao LF, Ferraz HB, et al. Effect of voice rehabilitation on oral communication of Parkinson's disease patients. Acta Neurol Scand 1997; 96:199-205.
130. Halpern A, Matos C, Ramig LO, et al. Technology supported speech treatment for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord 2005; 20(suppl 10): S134.
Was this article helpful?
Have you ever been envious of people who seem to have no end of clever ideas, who are able to think quickly in any situation, or who seem to have flawless memories? Could it be that they're just born smarter or quicker than the rest of us? Or are there some secrets that they might know that we don't?