Sir William Osler first used the term neuropsychology in 1913; however, neuropsychology, at least as a clinical endeavor, did not emerge as a subdiscipline of psychology until the 1940s, largely in response to demands for the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-injured soldiers in World War II (1). The likely first published use of a clinical neuropsychological test with persons having parkinsonian syndrome is Shaskin et al.'s (2) administration of the Wechsler Bellevue Scale, an intelligence scale, to postencephalitic parkinsonians. Neuropsychology shares with behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry the goal of relating behavior to underlying brain structure and function (3). However, neuropsychology's principal clinical method, namely its standardized, quantitative, norm-referenced approach to the evaluation of cognition and behavior, is perhaps the characteristic that most clearly distinguishes it from behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry.
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