Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic with good diffusion across the blood-brain barrier. Minocycline is also a caspase inhibitor. In vivo research has demonstrated beneficial effects on inflammation, microglial activation, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide production, and apoptotic cell death. It has been shown to possess neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA and MPTP animal models of PD, as well as other neurodegeneration models (44-46). A futility trial demonstrated that 77% of early PD patients tolerated minocycline for one year. It was concluded that further trials were justified; however, benefit and risk ratios must be taken into consideration (43).

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