Levetiracetam (Keppra®, UCB Pharma) is an anti-epileptic medication that is used for several hyperkinetic movement disorders. The drug has no affinity for most major neurotransmitter receptors, but does seem to oppose the action of GABAa antagonists. Evidence has been provided that suggests that the receptor-binding site for this drug is the SV2A receptor (57). Levetiracetam has improved drug-induced dyskinesia in MPTP animal models of PD; however, human trials have generally shown that levetiracetam is not well tolerated in PD patients and has a minimal effect on dyskinesia (58,59).

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