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The Parkinson's-Reversing Breakthrough

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Abalative surgery, 120-121

speech and swallowing disorders, 461-468 collagen augmentation, 461-462 cricopharyngeal myotomy, 462 pallidotomy, 461

thalamotomy and subthalamotomy, 461 voice treatment, 462-465 Acoustic analyses, speech and voice disorders and, 452-453 Activity modification, therapy rehabilitation interventions and, 447 Acupuncture, 483 Adaptive equipment, 447 Advanced Parkinson's disease amantadine therapy and, 294-295 seligiline clinical trials and, 354 Alpha methyl para tyrosine, 240 Alpha synuclein, 251-252 Alternative therapies, 475-486 acupuncture, 483 antioxidants, 479 cell-supporting agents, 479-480 chelation, 484 chiropractic, 478, 485 defining, 475-476 diet, 480-481

evidence-based research, 485-486 exercise, 484 herbs, 481-483 homeopathy, 478, 485 massage therapy, 483-484 naturopathy, 477-478 non-Western, 476-477 Ayurvedic medicine, 477 Chinese, 476-477 Amantadine therapy, 293-303 clinical uses, 294-295

advanced Parkinson's Disease,

294-295 early Parkinson's Disease, 294 miscellaneous considerations, 295 dosing, 293-294 history, 293

[Amantadine therapy] mechanisms of action, 296-297 pharmacokinetics, 293-294 side effects, 295-296 Animal models neurotoxicant induced, 240-250 Parkinson's disease and, 239-257 Anticholinergic therapy, 293-303 clinical uses, 299-300

miscellaneous considerations,

300-301 Parkinson's disease associated dystonia, 300 tremor predominant Parkinson's disease, 300 common types, 298 history, 299

mechanisms of action, 302-303 pharmacokinetics and dosing, 299 side effects, 301-302 Anticholinergics, 119 Antidepressants side effects of, 136 trycyclic, 141-142 Antioxidants, 479 Antipsychotic drugs, 157-162

test results of, 158 Anxiety, 118-119 detection and recognition, 134-135 epidemiology of, 133 management of, 133-136 mechanisms of, 134 treatment, 135 antidepressant side effects, 136 benzodiazepines, 135 buspirone, 136

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 135-136 Apomorphine, 336-337 Aripiprazole, 161-162 Articulatory disorders, 454-455 Assessment depression and, 139-141 lesion surgeries and, 394-402

Attention functions dementia and, 116-117 neuropsychology dysfunction without dementia, 114-115 Automobile driving excessive daytime sleepiness and, 97 sudden onset of sleep and, 97 Autonomic dysfunction diagnostic testing for, 77-79 common tests, 79

metaidobenzylguanidine scintigraphy, 78-79 features of, 78 frequency of, 77 management of, 77-87 symptoms and management of, 79-87 constipation, 83-84 dysphagia, 81-82 orthostatic hypotension, 79-81 sexual dysfunction, 85-86 sialorrhea, 82-83 sweating dysfunction, 86-87 urinary bladder dysfunction, 84-85 testing, 79 Ayurvedic herbs, 481-482 medicine, 477

Balance and coordination, 444-445 Basal ganglia physiology, gene therapy and, 433 selection theory, 227-228

nested nonlinear reentrant oscillators, 228-230 thalamic cortical system, 235 Behavioral neurology, 109-110

treatment, speech and swallowing disorders and, 462 Benzodiazepines, 135 Bilateral subthalamotomy, 402 thalamotomy, 400 Bradykinesia, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 52-54 Brain activity, LSVT and, 466-467 Brain lesions, 37 Brain stimulation, 121 Brasofensine, 382 Briomocriptine, 337-338 Brissaud, Eduard, 15 Buspirone, 136

Cabergoline, 341-342 Calcium binding proteins, 211-212 Carbon disulfide, 284 Catechol-O-Methyltransferase inhibitors, 365-372 current usage of, 371-372 first generation, 366 future of, 372 second generation, 366 entacapone, 367-369 nitecapone, 366-367 stalevo, 369 tolcapone, 369-371 Cell supporting agents, 479-480 Central side effects to anticholinergic therapy, 300 Charcot, Jean-Martin, 7-13 Salpetriere School, 7-13 Chelation, 484 Chinese herbs, 482-483 medicine, 476-477 Chiropractic therapy, 478, 485 Cholinesterase inhibitors, 119, 162-163, 166-169 properties of, 166 studies of, 168 Clinical assessment, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 49-62 Clinical molecular genetic testing, 273

Clinical trials levodopa and, 312-319 rasagiline and, 356 Clozapine, 157, 159 Coenzyme Q10, 385 Collagen augmentation, hypophonia, 461-462

Compensated rate of speech, 455-456 Complex system basal ganglia thalamic cortical system, 235 neurocircuitry and, 235 Constipation, 83-84 Coordination, 445

Corticabasal degeneration, 34-35, 123, 200-202 Creatine, 384-385 Cricopharyngeal myotomy, 462

Datatop, seligiline clinical trials and, 352-353 Deep brain stimulation, 121, 409-418 advantages and disadvantages, 410 adverse effects, 416-418

[Deep brain stimulation] early, 424-425

globus pallidus interna, 411-412

vs. subthalamic nucleus, 415-416 hardware, 409-410

related complications, 417-418 history of, 409 lesion surgeries vs., 393 stimulation complications, 418 subthalmic nucleus, 412-414 surgical complications, 417 swallowing disorder treatment and, 459-461 extradural, 460-461 transcranial, 460-461 thalamus, 410 Dementia, 116-118 affect and emotion, 117 attention and executive functions,

116-117 incidence of, 164-165 language, 117 Lewy bodies, 34 management of, 163-169 memory, 117

neuropathology of Parkinson's disease,

197-198 pathophysiology of, 165 prevalence of, 164-165 pugilistica, 203 risk factors, 117-118, 165-166 treatment general, 165-166 specifics, 166-169 cholinesterase inhibitors, 166-169 other types, 169 visuoperceptual functions, 117 Depression, 118, 136-146 detection and assessment, 139-141 epidemiology of, 136-137 management of, 136-146 mechanisms, 137-139 pharmacologic treatment of, 141-144 dopamine agonists, 144 miscellaneous agents, 142-144 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 142 tricyclic antidepressants, 141-142 treatment, 141-145 efficacy assessment, 144 nonpharmacologic, 144-145

[Depression; treatment]

pharmacologic, 141-144 Detection and recognition anxiety and, 134-135 depression and, 139-141 Diagnostic criteria, Parkinson's disease and, 40-42

Diet, alternative therapies and, 480-481 Differential diagnosis idiopathic, 29-31 neuroimaging and, 181-182 Parkinson and essential tremor, 55 parkinsonism and, 29-42 rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and, 95-96 Disability, 442

Disability assessment, parkinsonian symptoms and signs and, 61-62 Disordered rate of speech, 455-456 DNA mutations, 212-213 Dopa responsive dystonia, 38 Dopamine agonists, 119-120, 144, 335-345 apomorphine, 336-337 bromocriptine, 337-338 cabergoline, 341-342 new types, 380-382 lisuride patch, 381 piribedil, 381-382

ropinirole 24 hour prolonged release,

380-381 rotigotine patch, 381 SLV308, 382 sumanirole, 382 pergolide, 338-339 piribedil, 343 pramipexole, 339-340 receptors, 335-343 ropinirole, 340-341 rotigotine, 342-343 therapy, 344-345 titration schedule, 337 type comparison, 343-344 Dopamine receptors, 335-343 Dopamine synthesis gene therapy, 430-431

Dopamine transporters, 210-211 Dosing amantadine, 293-294 anticholinergic therapy and, 299 Drug induced parkinsonism, 31-32 sleep disruption, 98

Duodopa, 380

Dyskinesia levodopa and, 311-312 Dyskinesia treatment, 385-386 fipamezole, 386 levetiracetam, 386 sarizotan, 385-386 Dysphagia, 81-82

Early deep brain stimulation, 424-425 Early Parkinson's disease amantadine therapy and, 294 seligiline clinical trials and, 353 Electroconvulsive therapy, 163 Embryonic stem cells, 429 Emotion, dementia and, 117 Entacapone, 367-369 Environmental changes, 447 Environmental risk factors, 279-288 genes vs., 279-280 geographic impact, 280-281 occupational hazards, 284-287 risk factors, toxins, 281-284 Epidemiology anxiety and, 133 depression and, 136-137 genetics studies, 269-270 parkinsonism, 19-24 sleep dysfunction and, 91-103 Essential tremor (ET), 19 differentiation, 31 misdiagnosis, 19 neuropsychology and, 121-123 parkinsonian differential diagnosis of, 55 ET. See Essential tremor. Ethnicity, Parkinson's disease and, 23-24 Etilevodopa, 380

Evidence based research, alternative therapies and, 485-486 Excessive daytime sleepiness, 96-97 automobile driving, 97 treatment for, 102 Executive functions dementia and, 116-117 neuropsychology dysfunction without dementia, 114-115 Exercise, 484

therapy, 446-447 Extradural brain stimulation, 460-461

Facial expressions, LSVT and, 467 Familial parkinsonism, 203-204 kindred evaluations and, 272

Farming, 285

Fetal transplantation, 426-428 Fipamezole, 386

Freezing, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 59-60 Frontotemporal dementia, 35 Functional activities, 445

Gait abnormalities, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 59-60 Gait analysis, 444

Gender risk of Parkinson's disease, 23 Gene therapy, 430-431 basal ganglia physiology, 433 dopamine synthesis, 430-431 intravenous, 434

neurotrophin genetic delivery, 431-433 parkin, 433-434 strategies, 430 General mobility, physical therapy examination and, 444

Genes vs. environmental risk factors, 279-280 Genetics, 269-275 association studies, 271, 273 clinical molecular testing, 273 epidemiologic studies, 269-270 kindred evaluations, 270-271 models

Parkinsons's disease and, 250-254 rodents, 250-251 transgenic mouse, 251 studies of twins, 270 Geographic impact, environmental risk factors and, 280-281 Geography, Parkinson's disease and, 23-24 Gilial cell line derived neurotrophic factor, 425-426

Gilial-derived neurotrophic factor, 384 GIRK2 mutation, 214-216 Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation and, 411-412

selected studies, 411 patient selection, 416 Globus pallidus internal segment suppression theory, 225-227 Gowers, William, 14

Guam Parkinsonism Dementia Complex, 202-203

Hallervorden-Spatz disease. See Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Handicap, 442

Hardware, deep brain stimulation and, 409-410

hardware-related complications, 417-418 Head trauma, 36

Hemiparkinsonism Hemiatrophy Syndrome, 40 Herbicides, 283 Herbs, 481-483 ayurvedic, 481-482 Chinese, 482-483 Homeopathy, 478, 485 Homocysteine, levodopa and, 325-326 Huntington's disease, juvenile, 40 Hydropcephalus parkinsonism, 37 Hypertensive crisis, monamine oxidase inhibitors and, 350 Hypophonia, 461-462

Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 29-31 Imaging technology, 177-179 Impairment, 442

Incidence rates of Parkinson's disease, 21 Infectious parkinsonism, 37-38 Intracerebral drug infusion, 425-426

gilial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor,

425-426 neurturin, 426 Intravenous gene therapy, 434 Invertebrate models, 254-255 Investigational pharmacological treatments, 379-386

Investigational surgical therapies, 423-434 current therapies, status, 423 fetal transplantation, 426-428 gene therapy, 430-431 intracerebral drug infusion, 425-426 novel stimulation approaches, 423-424 early deep brain stimulation, 424-425 motor cortex stimulation, 424 pedunculopontine nucleus, 424 stem cell therapy, 428 Istradefylline, 383

Juvenile Huntington's disease, 40

Kindred evaluations

Familial parkinsonism, 272 genetics and, 270-272

Language dementia and, 117

neuropsychology dysfunction without dementia, 115

LARGO study, 357-358

Laryngeal dysfunction, physiologic measures, 453-454

Learning, neuropsychology dysfunction without dementia, 115 Lee Silverman Voice Treatment. See LSVT. Lesion surgeries, 291-403 assessments and procedures, 394-402 bilateral palidotomy, 395, 398 bilateral subthalamotomy, 402 bilateral thalamotomy, 400 palidotomy study size, 396-397 unilateral palidotomy, 394-395 unilateral subthalamic nucleotomy, 400-402

unilateral thalamotomy, 398-400 deep brain stimulation vs., 393 early attempts, 390-392 indications for, 392 patient considerations, 392-393 selection, 392-393 Lesions, 244-248

brain, 37 Levetiracetam, 386 Levodopa, 119-120, 309-328 available forms of, 327 challenge test, 326-327 clinical trials, 312-319 melanoma, 324-325 mortality, 323-324 motor fluctuation levels, 316-319 tolerance, 322-323 toxicity, 320-325 dyskinesia, 311-312 history of, 309-310 homocysteine, 325-326 importance of, 327-328 motor fluctuations, 311-312 new types, 379-380 duodopa, 380 etilevodopa, 380 methyl ester, 380 vadova, 379-380 pharmacology of, 310-311 Life expectancy, 21-22 Lisuride patch, 381

LSVT (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment), 462-468 administration of, 467-468 effectiveness of, 465-466 brain activity, 466-467

[LSVT (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment)] orofacial system, 466 facial expressions, 467 swallowing disorders and, 467

Management of autonomic dysfunction,

79-87 Manganese, 282-283 Massage therapy, 483-484 Mechanisms anxiety and, 134 depression and, 137-139 Mechanisms of action amantadine and, 296-297 anticholinergic therapy and, 302-303 monamine oxidase inhibitors and, 349-350 Melanized midbrain dopamine neurons, 209-210

Melanoma, levodopa and, 324-325 Memory dementia and, 117

neuropsychology dysfunction without dementia, 115 Methamphetamine, 248-249 Methyl ester levodopa, 380 Midbrain dopamine neurons, 211-212

calcium binding proteins, 211-212 Mimicking conditions, Parkinson's disease,

30-31 Minocycline, 385

Mitochondrial DNA mutations, 212-213 Monamine oxidase inhibitors, 349-358, 382 brasofensine, 382 hypertensive crisis, 350 mechanisms of action, 349-350 neuroprotective effects, 350-351 safinamide, 382 seligiline, 351-352 Mortality levodopa and, 323-324 seligiline and, 354-355 Motor cortex stimulation, 424 Motor features, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 52

Motor fluctuations, levodopa and, 311-312,

316-319 Mouse models, 251 MPTP lesioned mouse model, 244 nonhuman primate model, 244-247 other species, 248 Multi-infarct parkinsonism, 36-37

Multiple system atrophy, 33-34 122-123, 198,

255-256 Mutations, 212-213

Naturopathy, 477-478

Nested nonlinear reentrant oscillators,

228-230 Neurocanthocytosis, 40 Neurochemistry of nigral degeneration,

209-217 Neurocircuitry, 223-235 anatomy, 224-225

basal ganglia selection theory, 227-228 basal ganglia thalamic cortical system, 235 complex system, 235

globus pallidus internal segment suppression theory, 225-227 oscillatory theory, 228-230 Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology, 225 subthalmic nucleus deep brain stimulation, 230-235 Neuroimaging, 177-188 accuracy of, 179-181 differential diagnosis, 181-182 disease progression, 182-186 imaging technology, 177-179 preclinical Parkinson's disease, 186-187 Neurology, behaviorial, 109-110 Neuronal mechanisms, 230-235 Neuronal stem cells, 429-430 Neuropathology clinical features, 195-197 corticobasal degeneration, 200-202 dementia pugilistica, 203 dementia, 197-198 familial parkinsonism, 203-204 multiple system atrophy, 198 parkinsonism and, 195-204 postencephalitic, 202 progressive supranuclear palsy, 199-200 Neurophysiology, 223-235 Neuroprotective effects, monamine oxidase inhibitors and, 350-351 Neuropsychiatric comorbidities, 98 Neuropsychiatry issues, treatment for, 102 Neuropsychiatry, 109-110 Neuropsychological aspects, 109-123

surgical interventions, 120-121 Neuropsychology, 109-110 anxiety, 118-119

cognitive domain assessed tests, 111 depression, 118

[Neuropsychology] dysfunction with dementia, 116-118 without dementia, 114-115

attention and executive functions,

114-115 language, 115 learning and memory, 115 visuospatial perception, 115 essential tremor, 121-123 evaluation types, 110-111 findings in Parkinson's disease, 113-114 managing Parkinson's disease, 112-113 Parkinson-plus syndromes, 121-123 corticobasal degeneration, 123 multiple system atrophies, 122-123 progressive supranuclear palsy, 122 pharmacologic treatments, 119-121 Neurotoxicant induced animal models, 240-250 methamphetamine, 248-249 paraquat, 249

proteasome inhibitors, 249-250 rotenone, 249 Neurotrophin genetic delivery, 431-433 Neurturin, 426 Nigral degeneration, 209-217

adenosine triphosphate sensitive postassium

(K-ATP) channels, 216-217 dopamine transporters, 210-211 GIRK2 mutation, 214-216 melanized midbrain dopamine neurons, 209-210

midbrain dopamine neurons, 211-212 substantia nigra pars compacta, 210-211 transcription factor PitX3, 213-214 uncoupling proteins, 214 vesicular monamine transporter, 210-211 Nitecapone, 366-367 Nocturia, 97-98 Nocturnal akinesia, 94

treatment for, 102 Non-neuronal stem cells, 430 Nonpharmacologic treatment of depression, 144-145

Non-western alternative therapies, 476-477 Nucleotomy, unilateral subthalamic, 400-402

Occupational hazards farming, 285 steel industry, 285-286 welding, 286-287

Occupational therapy 441-448 definition of, 442 evaluation, 445-446 coordination, 445 functional activities, 445 range of motion, 445 strength testing, 445 Odansetron, 162 Olanzapine, 160 Orofacial system, 466 Orthostatic hypotension, 79-81 Oscillatory theory, 228-230 Osler, William, 14-15

Pallidotomy, 461 bilateral, 395, 398 study size, 396-397 unilateral, 394-395 Palsy, progressive supranuclear, 199-200,

256-257 Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (HallervordenSpatz disease), 39-40 Paraquat, 249 Parasomnias, 94-98 rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, 94-95 Parkin, 252

gene therapy, 433-434 Parkinson plus syndrome, 121-123 corticobasal degeneration, 123 multiple system atrophies, 122-123 progressive supranuclear palsy, 122 Parkinson, essential tremor, differential diagnosis of, 55 Parkinson, James, early life of, 3-6 Parkinson's disease advanced, 294-295

seligiline clinical trials and, 354 alternate diagnosis, 30 animal models, 239-257 associated dystonia, 300 corticobasal degeneration, 200-202 diagnostic criteria, 40-42 differential diagnosis, 29-31 classification, 30 idiopathic, 29-31 mimicking conditions, 30-31 early, 294

seligiline clinical trials and, 353 early writings on, 1-15 Brissaud, 15

[Parkinson's disease] Charcot, 7-13 Gowers, 14 Osler, 14-15 Sauvages, 1 Shakespeare, 1 von Humoldt, 1, 3 essential tremor differentiation, 31 genetic models, 250-254 history of, 1-15 invertebrate models, 254-255 James Parkinson, 3-6 model variants, 255-257 multiple system atrophy, 255-256 striatonigral degeneration, 255-256 taupathies, 256-257 multiple system atrophy, 198 neuropathology, clinical features, 195-197 neuropsychological aspects, 109-123 anxiety, 118-119 depression, 118

pharmacologic treatments, 119-121 surgical interventions, 120-121 neuropsychology, dysfunction with dementia, 116-118 dysfunction without dementia, 114-115 pathophysiology, neurocircuitry and, 225 postencephalitic, 202 preclinical, 186-187

progression neuroimaging and, 182-186 progressive supranuclear palsy, 199-200 relative risk of, 280 tremor predominant, 300 Parkinsonian symptoms and signs assessment of disability, 61-62 Bradykinesia, 52-54 freezing, 59-60 gait abnormalities, 59-60 motor features, 52 other motor manifestations, 60-61 pathophysiology and clinical assessment,

49-62 postural instability, 59 rigidity and postural abnormalities, 56-59 tremor, 55-56

Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scalea, 68-75 Parkinsonism differential diagnosis, 29-42 epidemiology, 19-24 incidence rates, 21 inclusion criteria, 19-20

[Parkinsonism]

life expectancy, 21-22 misdiagnosis, 19 prevalence of, 22-23 gender risk, 23

geography, ethnicity, race, 23-24 magnetic resonance imaging, 35 neuropathology and, 195-204 other causes, 31-41 brain lesions, 37 corticobasal degeneration, 34-35 dementia Lewy bodies, 34 drug induced, 31-32 frontotemporal dementia, 35 head trauma, 36 hydrocephalus, 37 infectious, 37-38 multi-infarct, 36-37 multiple system atrophy, 33-34 postinfectious, 37-38 progressive supranuclear palsy, 32-33 psychogenic, 38 toxin-induced, 36 young adults, 38-40

dopa responsive dystonia, 38 Hemiparkinsonism Hemiatrophy Syndrome, 40 juvenile Huntington's disease, 40 neuroacanthocytosis, 40 pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, 39-40 Wilson's disease, 38-39 X-linked dystonia parkinsonism, 40 Pathophysiology dementia and, 165 Parkinsonian symptoms and signs,

49-62 psychosis, 156-157 sleep dysfunction, 93 Patient assessment, physical and occupational therapy, 441-442 Patient considerations, lesion surgeries and, 392-393

Patient selection, lesion surgeries and,

392-393 Pedunculopontine nucleus, 424 Perceptual deficits, 456-457 Pergolide, 338-339 Periodic limb movement, 97 Peripheral side effects to anticholinergic therapy, 301-302 Pesticides, 283

Pharmacokinetics amantadine, 293-294 anticholinergic therapy and, 299 Pharmacologic treatment anticholinergics, 119 cholinesterase inhibitors, 119 depression dopamine agonists, 144 miscellaneous agents, 142-144 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 142

tricyclic antidepressants, 141-142 dopamine agonists, 119-120 levodopa, 119-120

neuropsychological aspects of, 119-121 rasagiline, 120 selegiline, 120 Pharmacological induced animal models, 240

reserpine, 240 Pharmacological treatments, new, 379-386 coenzyme Q10, 385 creatine, 384-385 dopamine agonists, 380-382 dyskinesia, 385-386 gilial-derived neurotrophic factor, 384 istradefylline, 383 levodopa preparations, 379-380 minocycline, 385 monamine oxidase inhibitor, 382 Pharmacology, levodopa and, 310-311 Physical and occupational therapy, 441-448 definitions, 441-442 disability, 442 handicap, 442 impairment, 442 occupational, 442 definitions, physical, 442 specific terms, 442-443 evaluation, 443-446 evidence of, 448 future of, 448

patient assessment, 441-442 rehabilitation interventions, 446-447 Physical therapy, 444-445 definition of, 442 examination, 444-445 balance and coordination, 444-445 gait analysis, 444 general mobility, 444 other points, 445 posture assessment, 444

[Physical therapy]

range of motion, 444 strength, 444 Piribedil, 343

Postencephalitic parkinsonism, 202 Postinfectious parkinsonism, 37-38 Postural abnormalities, parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 56-59 instability, Parkinsonian symptoms and signs, 59 Posture assessment, 444 Pramipexole, 339-340

Preclinical Parkinson's disease, neuroimaging and, 186-187 Prevalence of Parkinson's disease, 22-23 Pribedil, 381-382

Progressive supranuclear palsy, 32-33, 122,

199-200, 256-257 Proteasome inhibitors, 249-250 Psychogenic parkinsonism, 38 Psychosis background of, 155-156 management of, 155-163 pathophysiology of, 156-157 risk factors, 156-157 treatment of general, 157 long-term outcome, 163 specifics, 157-163 aripiprazole, 161-162 cholinesterase inhibitors, 162-163 clozapine, 157, 159 electroconvulsive therapy, 163 odansetron, 162 olanzapine, 160 quetiapine, 160-161 risperidone, 159-160 ziprasidone, 161 test results of antipsychotic drugs, 158

Quetiapine, 160-161

Race, Parkinson's disease and, 23-24 Range of motion, 444-445 Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, 94-95 clinical features, 95 differential diagnosis, 95-96 drug-induced, 98

excessive daytime sleepiness, 96-97 neuropsychiatric comorbidities, 98

[Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder] nocturia, 97-98 periodic limb movement, 97 restless leg syndrome, 97 sleep-disordered breathing, 97 sudden onset of sleep, 96-97 treatment of, 102-103 Rasagiline, 120, 356 adverse effects, 358 clinical trials, 356 LARGO study, 357-358 PRESTO study, 357 TEMPO study, 356 Rate of speech compensated, 455-456 disordered, 455-456 Rehabilitation interventions, physical and occupational therapy and, 446-447 Reserpine, 240 Resonance problems, 456 Respiratory dysfunction, 454-455 articulatory, 454-455 velopharyngeal, 454-455 Restless leg syndrome, 97

treatment of, 102-103 Rigidity, parkinsonian symptoms and signs,

56-59 Risk factors dementia and, 164-165 environmental, 279-288 psychosis and, 156-157 Risperidone, 159-160 Ropinirole, 340-341 Rotenone, 249 Rotigotine, 342-343 patch, 381

Safinamide, 382

Salpetriere School, Jean-Martin Charcot and, 7-13 Sarizotan, 385-386 Sauvages, François Boissier de, 2 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors,

135-136, 142 Selegiline, 120, 351-352 clinical trials, 352-354 Advanced Parkinson's disease, 354 datatop, 352-353 early Parkinson's disease, 353 mortality, 354-355 rasagiline, 356 zydis, 355

Sensorimotor deficits, 456-457 Severity, neuroimaging and, 181-182 Sexual dysfunction, 85-86 Shakespeare, William, 2 Sialorrhea, 82-83 Side effects amantadine and, 295-296 anticholinergic therapy and, 301-302 antidepressants and, 136 Sleep disordered breathing, 97 Sleep dysfunction, 91-103 causes of, 92

epidemiology and symptoms, 91-103 management strategies for, 100-101 measuring of, 98-99 pathophysiology, 93 subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, 103 symptoms, 94-98 nocturnal akinesia, 94 parasomnias, 94-98 treatment of, 99-103

excessive daytime sleepiness, 102 neuropsychiatry problems, 102 nocturnal akinesia, 102 rapid eye movement behavior disorder,

102-103 restless leg syndrome, 102-103 Sleep hygiene, 101

Speech and voice characteristics, 452-458 Speech and voice disorders, 451-457 acoustic measures, 452-453 disordered vs. compensated rate of speech,

455-456 laryngeal dysfunction, 453-454 perceptual characteristics, 452 perceptual deficits, 456-457 phonetic characteristics, 452 resonance problems, 456 respiratory dysfunction, 454-455 sensorimotor deficits, 456-457 Speech disorders, treatment, 458-459 abalative surgery, 461-468 collagen augmentation, 461-462 pallidotomy, 461

thalamotomy and subthalamotomy, 461 voice treatment, 462-465 treatment, behavorial treatment, 462 Stalevo, 369

Stem cell therapy, 428-430 embryonic, 429 features, 428

[Stem cell therapy] goals, 428-429 neuronal stem cells, 429-430 non-neuronal stem cells, 430 Strength physical therapy examination and, 444 testing, 445 Striatonigral degeneration, 255-256 Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation, 103, 230-235, 412-414 neuronal mechanisms, 230-235 predictive outcome factors, 414-415 selected studies, 413 Subthalamic nucleus globus pallidus interna vs., deep brain stimulation, 415-416

Subthalamic nucleus patient selection, 416 Subthalamotomy, 461 Sudden onset of sleep, 96-97

automobile driving, 97 Sumanirole dopamine agonist, 382 Surgeries, lesion, 291-403 Surgical complications, deep brain stimulation and, 417

Surgical interventions, neuropsychological aspects and, 120-121 ablative surgeries, 120-121 deep brain stimulation, 121 transplantation, 121 surgical therapies, investigational, 423-434 Swallowing disorders, 457-458 LSVT and, 467 treatment, 458-459 abalative surgery, 461-468 collagen augmentation, 461-462 cricopharyngeal myotomy, 462 pallidotomy, 461

thalamotomy and subthalamotomy, 461

behavorial treatment, 462 deep brain stimulation, 459-461 extradural, 460-461 transcranial, 460-461 Sweating dysfunction, 86-87 Symptoms autonomic dysfunction and, 79-87 sleep dysfunction and, 91-103

Taupathies progressive supranuclear palsy, 256-257 related disorders, 256-257

Thalamotomy, 461 bilateral, 400 unilateral, 398-400 Thalamus, deep brain stimulation and, 410 Therapies, alternative, 475 Therapy evaluation, 443-446 occupational, 445-446 physical examination, 444-445 treatment planning, 445-446 Therapy, physical and occupational, 441-448 Therapy, rehabilitation interventions activity modification, 447 adaptive equipment, 447 education, 447 environmental changes, 447 exercise, 446-447 Titration schedule, dopamine agonists and, 337 Tolcapone, 369-371 Tolerance, levodopa and, 322-323 Toxicity, levodopa and, 320-325 Toxin-induced parkinsonism, 36 Toxins, 281-284 carbon disulfide, 284 manganese, 282-283 pesticides/herbicides, 283 solvents, 284 Transcranial brain stimulation, 460-461 Transgenic mouse models, 251 alpha synuclein, 251-252 DJ-1, 253 LRRK2, 253

miscellaneous types, 254 Nurrl, 253-254 parkin, 252 PINK1, 253 UCH-L1, 253 vector infusion, 254 Transplantation, 121 Trauma, head, 36 Treatment anxiety and, 135 depression and, 141-145 Tremor, Parkinsonian, symptoms and signs, 55-56

Tremor, predominant Parkinson's disease, anticholinergic therapy and, 300 Trycyclic antidepressants, 141-142 Twin studies, genetics and, 270

Uncoupling proteins, nigral degeneration and, 214

Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, 68-75

Unilateral palidotomy, lesion surgeries and, 394-395 Unilateral subthalamic nucleotomy, 400-402

Unilateral thalamotomy, 398-400 Urinary bladder dysfunction, 84-85

Vadova, 379-380

Vector infusion, transgenic mouse models and, 254

Velopharyngeal disorders, 454-455 Vesicular monamine transporter, 210-211

substantia nigra pars compacta, 210-211 Visuoperceptual functions, dementia and, 117 Visuospatial perception, 115 Voice disorders, 451-457 Voice treatment

LSVT (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment), 462-468

[Voice treatment] speech and swallowing disorders and, 462-465 Von Humoldt, Wilhelm, 1, 3

Wilson's disease, 38-39

X-Linked dystonia parkinsonism, 40

Young adults, parkinsonism, 38-40 dopa responsive dystonia, 38 Hemiparkinsonism Hemiatrophy

Syndrome, 40 juvenile Huntington's disease, 40 neuroacanthocytosis, 40 pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, 39-40 Wilson's disease, 38-39 X-linked dystonia parkinsonism, 40

Ziprasidone, 161 Zydis seligiline, 355

about previous editions .

"...valuable to the neurologist or psychiatrist who treats Parkinson's patients or to anyone who enjoys the pure intellectual pleasure of watching scientific progress unfold in the understanding of Parkinson's disease."—Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

"...covers all aspects of Parkinson's disease and is the best general text on the topic."—Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry about the fourth edition ...

This blue-ribbon guide has long prevailed as one of the leading resources on Parkinson's disease (PD). Fully updated with practical and engaging chapters on pathology, neurochemistry, etiology, and breakthrough research, this source spans every essential topic related to the identification, assessment, and treatment of PD. Reflecting the many advances that have taken place in the management of PD, this source promotes a multidisciplinary approach to care and supplies new sections on the latest pharmacologic, surgical, and rehabilitative therapies, as well as essential diagnostic, imaging, and nonmotor management strategies for PD.

The most authoritative source in the literature on this increasingly important neurological entity, this guide is completely revised and expanded to offer a more integrated approach to the management of parkinsonian symptoms...guides readers through the most recent neuropsychological and neuroimaging techniques to enhance diagnostic accuracy...surpasses any other source on the topic with hundreds of field-specific references and discussions on new therapies, treatment methods, and current research findings...helps to enhance patient quality-of-life with expert analyses of emerging medications, surgical procedures, rehabilitation strategies, genetic studies, and advances in diagnostic imaging...and offers a comprehensive overview of the clinical presentation, pathology, neurochemistry, etiology, and control of Parkinson's disease.

about the editors ...

RAJESH PAHWA is the Láveme and Joyce Rider Professor of Neurology, and Director, Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City. The author or coauthor of numerous journal articles and professional publications, he received the M.B.B.S. (M.D.) degree (1983) from the University of Bombay, India.

KELLY E. LYONS is Research Associate Professor and Director of Research and Education, Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Center, Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City. The author or coauthor of numerous journal articles and professional publications, she received the M.A. (1991) and Ph.D. (1993) degrees in cognitive and experimental psychology from the University of Kansas, Lawrence.

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