Benabid et al. (4) were the pioneers of DBS surgery. In the late 1980s, during thala-mic lesioning, they observed that low-frequency stimulation increased tremor, whereas frequencies above 100 Hz reduced tremor. They confirmed these observations by implanting an electrode in the contralateral motor thalamus of a patient who had undergone thalamotomy and needed surgery on the second side. This was done to avoid the higher rate of complications known to occur with bilateral lesion surgeries. The results were satisfactory and thalamic stimulation increasingly replaced thalamotomy even in patients undergoing unilateral procedures (5). Similarly, DBS of the GPi (6) and STN (7) largely replaced pallidotomy and DBS of the STN has become the most commonly performed surgical treatment for PD.
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