An akinetic-rigid syndrome with dysarthria and dementia is sometimes a long-term outcome of repeated closed-head trauma, as seen in professional boxers. The pathology on gross examination, other than lesions that can be attributed to trauma, for example, subdural membranes and cortical contusions, is nonspecific. The substantia nigra may also show pigment loss. Microscopically, there are NFTs similar to those in AD in the brainstem monoaminergic nuclei, cortex and hippocampus and some cases also have amyloid plaques (55,56). At the electron microscopic level, they are composed of paired helical filaments and biochemically composed of 68, 64, and 60 kDa forms (57).
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