Henry Tsai George Hemstreet David Seligson Zuo Feng Zhang and Jian Yu

Cancer development is the result of alterations of numerous genes and signaling pathways many of the changes are subtle and quantitative in nature. Traditional immunohistochemical analysis is a popular approach for detecting protein level expression abnormalities. However, it suffers from low sensitivity and, at best, is semi-quantitative in nature thus it may not be reliably used to detect low level changes. Fluorescence-based approaches such as immunofluorescence or fluorescence in situ...

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Effects of the most common deficiencies in IHC and steps to correct them. Low signal in all antibodies all cases Low signal in one antibody many causes and controls Low signal in all antibodies one case Antibody with peculiar staining Wrong antibody pipetted on the slide, error in antibody dilution Blocking serum from a species against which the detection system is directed, slides dried out Low proliferation index in germinal centers tissue that formerly reacted Check on H& E...

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CpG island hypermethylation and tumor suppressor genes A booming present, a brighter future. Oncogene 21 5427-5440. Esteller M. 2002. CpG island hypermethylation and tumor suppressor genes A booming present, a brighter future. Oncogene 21 5427-5440. consistent with the data of particular methylotypes proposed for single tumor types. In this way, it is possible to use the CpG island hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes as tumor markers. One obvious advantage over genetic...

References

Ahrendt, S.A., Chow, J.T., Xu, L., Yang, S.C., Eisenberger, C.F., Esteller, M., Herman, J.G., Wu, L., Decker, P.A., Jen, J., and Sidransky, D. 1999. Molecular detection of tumor cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with early stage lung cancer. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 91 332-339. Alves, G., Tatro, A., and Fanning, T. 1996. Differential methylation of human LINE-1 retrotransposons in malignant cells. Gene 176 39-44. Baylin, S.B., Herman, J.G., Graff, J.R., Vertino, P.M., and Issa,...

Microarray Based Gene Expression Analysis of Defined Tumor Areas

Regine Dahse, Alexander Berndt, and Hartwig Kosmehl The completion of the human genome project and the recent development of novel, highly sensitive, high-throughput techniques have now afforded the opportunity to perform a comprehensive molecular characterization of normal, premalignant, and tumor cells. Among the most powerful tools for identifying carcinogenesis-associated genes and dissecting regulatory patterns are high-density arrays of oligoncleotides or complementary deoxyribonucleic...

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Pancreatic Cancer

Representative images of BRCA1 with immunofluorescence-based quantitative fluorescence image analysis 400X and immunohistochemistry labeling 200X in benign and malignant cores are shown. Figure 5. Representative images of BRCA1 with immunofluorescence-based quantitative fluorescence image analysis 400X and immunohistochemistry labeling 200X in benign and malignant cores are shown. are grouped into a limited range of scoring categories. For example, in our study, tissue spots with an...

Authors and Coauthors of Volume

Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sung Kyun Kwan University, School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-Dong, Kangmam-ku, Seoul 135-710, Korea Taku Aoki Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic and Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan Frank Bergmann Institute of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany Alexander Berndt HELIOS Clinic Erfurt, Institute of Pathology,...

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In each iteration, one piece of data is moved to a new cluster where it is closest to the mean vector of the new cluster. After each move, new expression vectors for the two affected classes are recalculated. This process continues until any further move would increase the mean intercluster means expression variability for each cluster or reduce intracluster distances. An advantage of the k-means algorithm is that, because of its simplicity, it can be used in a variety...

Methodology of Microarray Data Analysis

Xiaofeng Zhou, Hiroshi Egusa, Steven W. Cole, Ichiro Nishimura, Microarrays have revolutionized biological research by allowing researchers to study the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously for the first time DeRisi et al., 1996 Schena et al., 1995 . Although biomedical investigators have quickly adopted this powerful new research tool, accurate analysis and interpretation of the data have presented an immense challenge in the fields of statistical science and data mining. To make...