P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium and P. notoginseng yielded 12, 8 and 6 major ginsenosides respectively and P. quinquefolium did not reveal detectable amounts of ginsenosides Ra, Rf, Rh1 and Rh2. The reported crude saponin yield and related panaxadiol/panaxatriol ratio is presented in Table 5.34.
Although Japanese ginseng P. japonicus has recently been investigated in detail it is not apparently readily available commercially outside of Japan and possesses different pharmacological properties.
Further work on the isolated phytochemicals should permit a more precise understanding of the relationship between the common species and aid the explanation of the pharmacology of the crude extracts as well as the individual compounds.
Appendix—Chemical Nomenclature of Saponins and Some Other Chemical Substances Reported Occurring in Ginseng Species
Name Chemical Nomenclature
[5a,8ft9a, 10ft 13ft14a,17ftS*)]-17-(1,5-dimethylhexyl)-hexa-decahydro-4,4, 8,-10, 14-pentamethyl-14-cyclopenta [a]-phenanthrene
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