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and Rg2, gypenoside XVII and notoginsenosides R1 and R2 and ocotillol type saponins majonoside R2 and pseudoginsenosides 24(S) F11, F11 and RT2. Morita et al. (1986a) concluded that this variety was therefore probably synonymous with P. japonicus var. major.

Minor saponins isolated from P. pseudoginseng samples included psendoginsenoside RI2 (Bis-[oleanolic acid-3-O-^-D-glucurono-pyranosyl(2^1)-^-D-xylopyranosyl-4-O]-phthalate) and pseudogmsenoside RI3 from subsp. himalaicus var. angustifolius (Shukla and Thakur, 1990; Shukla, Thakur and Pachaly, 1992) and chikusetsusaponin VI=20(S)-protopanaxadiol-3-0-^-D-glucopyranosyl(1^2)-[-^D-xylopyranosyl- (1^6)]-^-D-glucopyranosido-20-0-^-D-glucopyranosyl(1^6)-^-D-glucopyranoside (Kohda et al., 1991).

Examination of rhizomes of P. pseudoginseng samples collected in Chame, central Nepal, confirmed the presence of dammarane saponins Rb1, Rb3, Rd, Re, Rg1 and gypenoside XVII and the new saponins, 24(S)-pseudoginsenoside F11 and monoacetylginsenoside Rd (also called ginsenoside RC1). Rhizomes gathered at Ghorapanai also yielded notoginsenoside R1, quinquenoside R1, majonoside R2 and malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1. However no specimens from either area produced oleanolic acid saponins and therefore the taxonomic status is debatable (Namba et al., 1986). More work is necessary to prove species identity and the possible occurrence of chemical races within species.

The studies of Himalayan or Indian ginseng (P. pseudoginseng subsp. himalaicus and its two varieties angustifolius and bipinnatifidus) undertaken by Shukla and Thakur (1987) and Shukla (1989) revealed that on hydrolysis of the total saponins protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, ^-sitosterol and oleanolic acid were isolated as aglycones. Common constituents were ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1 and Ro, pseudoginsenosides F11, RP1 and RT1 and chikusetsusaponins IV and IVa. This pattern closely resembles that of P. japonicus.

Long-chain aliphatic alcohol derivatives isolated from rhizomes of P. pseudoginseng subsp. himalaicus var. angustifolius included tritriacontanol, 24-hydroxyhexatetra-contanoic acid, 2-methyl-hexatetracont-1-en-3,21-diol and tritriacontanyl octacosanoate (Shukla and Thakur, 1986).

Apart from saponins the rhizomes of P. japonicus also contain polysaccharides. Ohtani et al. (1989) reported the occurrence of tochibanan A, a compound of molecular mass 23,000 with a linear ^-1,4-galactose spine and tochibanan B, a compound with molecular mass 40,000 comprising D-galactose (87.1 %), L-arabinose, D-glucose and D-galacturonic acid and a ^-D-(1^4)-linked galactopyranosyl backbone. Side chains include galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose and glucose (Ohtani et al., 1989) The rhizomes of P. japonicus var. major yielded by a process involving saline solution extraction, dialysis, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration two glycoproteins ZP-1 and ZP-2. The latter inhibited the growth of mycelia of the fungi Trichoderma viride and Fusarium graminearum; compound ZP-2 comprised two subunits (molecular weights 55 and 66 Kd respectively) and contained glucose, mannose, fucose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose and uronic acids together with protein rich in asparagine and glutamine (Du et al., 1992).

Table 5.24. Reported yields of individual saponins in Japanese ginseng stems and leaves

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