Mastering the OSCE
Table 2-1 is an abbreviated t score table that shows the values of t corresponding to different areas under the normal distribution for various sample sizes. Tables of t values do not show sample size (n) directly instead, they express sample size in terms of degrees of freedom (df). For the purposes of USMLE, degrees of freedom (df) can be defined as simply equal to n 1. Therefore, ro determine the value of t (such that 95 of the population of t-statistics based on a sample size of 15 lies between t and +t), one would look in the table for the appropriate value of t for df 14 (14 being equal to n 1) this is sometimes written as t,4. Table 2-1 shows that this value is 2.145.
Most USMLE Step 1 candidates probably spend no more than 3 to 5 hours reviewing biostatistics. In this short time, the candidate should be able to memorize the ultra-high-yield items in this checklist. Together with a background understanding from the previous chapters in this book, these items should equip the candidate to pick up a good number of points in a subject area that is neglected by many students and medical schools, which should mean that biostatistics in itself will be relatively a high-yield subject on the examination for the candidate. After this list and the referenced material in this book have been reviewed, a self-test can be administered by using the USMLE-style exercise questions at the end of each chapter. The USMLE Step 1 candidate should
Figure 4-5. ( ) Posteroanterior radiograph showing primary tuberculosis. Note the consolidation (P) in the right lower lobe of the lung. Secondary, or reactivation, tuberculosis usually is located in the apex (S). (B) Posteroanterior radiograph of miliary tuberculosis. Note the many small consolidations scattered throughout both lungs. (C) Gross specimen of the cut surface of the lung showing bronchopneumonia. Note the patchy consolidations throughout the lung (multilobar), surrounding the bronchi. A large area of consolidation also is seen in the basal portion of the lower lobe because of gravitational pooling of bacteria. (D) Gross specimen of the lung showing lobar pneumonia. Note that the entire lower lobe (X) is uniformly consolidated. The upper and lower lobes appear different because the lower lobe is in the late consolidation, or gray hepatization, stage, in which the lung has a typical gray-brown, dry surface. (E) Posteroanterior radiograph showing cystic fibrosis. Note the...
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