The relationships of vocational interests to other personality variables have been studied more generally by Roe (1956), Holland (1985), and other researchers (Darley &Hagenah, 1955; Osipow, 1983). The most extensive and influential of these conceptions is Holland's theory of vocational personalities and work environments. According to Holland, people seek and remain in environments that are congruent with their personalities, and they are happier and more productive in such environments. But if a particular environment proves incompatible with a person's personality, either the environment must change or the person must seek a more compatible environment. With respect to vocational choice in particular, the theory predicts that the congruence between an individual's personality and particular occupations is the principal factor in occupational selection, stability, and satisfaction.
The six vocational personalities, which are the same as the six work environments in Holland's model, are depicted in Figure 10-6; they are
Realistic (A) Investigative (I)
Realistic (A) Investigative (I)
Inventory 10-1 -
Directions: This inventory relates your expressed interests and personality characteristics to possible careers for you. Read and follow the directions for each part carefully.
Part I. Mark the one statement (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) in this part that is most descriptive of you.
1. You like and are good at manipulating tools, machines, and other objects, and working outdoors with plants and animals.
2. You like and are good at observing, learning, investigating, analyzing, evaluating, and solving problems.
3. You like and do well in unstructured situations in which your creativity or imagination can be expressed.
4. You like and are good at working with people—developing, enlightening, informing, training, curing, and helping or supporting them in various ways.
5. You like and are good at influencing and persuading other people, and you would like to lead or manage an organization.
6. You like and are good at arithmetic and clerical activities such as filing, record keeping, and data processing.
According to your expressed interests, the following prediction concerning your vocational future can be made: (Referto the statement in Part III having the same number as the statement you checked in Part I.)
Go to Part III
Part II. Check the one statement (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6) in this part that is most descriptive of you.
1. You are a realistic, practical, conforming, and natural person.
(R)ealistic, (I)nvestigative, (A)rtistic, (I)ntegrative, (E)nterprising, and (Conventional. These six types are idealizations, and a specific personality or environment is a composite of two or more ideal types. Five concepts that involve relationships among the various types are consistency, differentiation, identity, congruence, and calculus. The consistency of an interest pattern is the extent to which the person's high scores on the six types are close to each other on the model (see Figure 10-6). The greater the degree of differentiation of interests, the smaller the number of high scores. A person who has a small number of vocational goals in a few major categories is said to have a keen sense of personal identity; environmental identity exists when the goals, tasks, and rewards in a particular environment are stable over time. When there is a match between personality types and environmental types, a state of congruence exists. A fifth concept in the theory, that of calculus, refers to the
2. You are a rational, cautious, curious, independent, and introversive person.
3. You are an imaginative, introspective, complicated, emotional, expressive, impulsive, nonconforming, and disorderly person.
4. You are an cooperative, friendly, helpful, persuasive, tactful, and understanding person.
5. You are an aggressive, ambitious, energetic, domineering, pleasure-seeking, self-confident, sociable, and talkative person.
6. You are a conscientious, efficient, inflexible, obedient, orderly, persistent, and self-controlled person.
According to your description of your personality, the following prediction concerning your vocational future can be made: [Refer to the statement in Part III
having the same number as the statement you checked in Part II.)
Go to Part III
Part III. Predictions
1. Jobs such as automobile mechanic, farmer, or electrician are more likely to appeal to you.
2. Jobs in fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, geology, and other sciences are more likely to appeal to you.
3. Jobs such as actor, musician, or writer are more likely to appeal to you.
4. Jobs in clinical or counseling psychology, speech therapy, teaching, and related fields are more likely to appeal to you.
5. Jobs such as manager, business executive, or salesperson are more likely to appeal to you.
6. Jobs such as banker, bookkeeper, and tax expert are more likely to appeal to you.
Go to Part II if you have not completed it extent to which the six types of personality and environment can be ordered according to a hexagonal model in which the distances are consistent with their theoretical relationships.
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