Somewhere between Cattell and Eysenck in the number of proposed traits is the five-factor model (Costa &McCrae, 1986; Goldberg, 1980). The five factors or traits in this model are:
Neuroticism. High scorers on measures of this factor are described as anxious, insecure, self-conscious, self-pitying, worrying, and vulnerable; low scorers are described as calm, comfortable, even-tempered, secure, self-satisfied, and unemotional.
Extraversion. High scorers on measures of this factor are described as active, affectionate, fun-loving, sociable, passionate, and talkative; low scorers are described as passive, quiet, reserved, retiring, sober, and unfeeling.
Openness to Experience. High scorers on measures of this factor are described as creative, curious, imaginative, independent, liberal, and original; low scorers are described as conforming, conservative, conventional, down-to-earth, uncreative, and uncurious.
Agreeableness. High scorers on measures of this factor are described as acquiescent, generous, good-natured, helpful, softhearted, and trusting; low scorers are described as antagonistic, critical, ruthless, stingy, suspicious, and uncooperative.
Conscientiousness. High scorers on measures of this factor are described as careful, conscientious, hardworking, persevering, punctual, and well organized; low scorers are described as careless, disorganized, late, lazy, negligent, and weak-willed. Report 5-1 is a profile and computer-based report of scores on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, a paper-and-pencil instrument designed to assess a person's standing on these five factors.
A great deal of research has been conducted on the five-factor, or "Big Five," model of personality. Though the results of some studies point to a great deal of consistency in the factors across different nationalities and cultures (Angleitner & Ostendorf, 1994; Goldberg, 1994; McCrae & Costa, 1987), the validities of the model (Block, 1995) and the NEO Personality Inventory (Ben-Porath & Waller, 1992; Butcher & Rouse, 1996) have been questioned.
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