Contents

1. The Study of Adult Development 1

Concepts and Foundations 1

Research Methods 8

Organizations and Ethics 21

Summary 23

Suggested Readings 24

2. The Aging Human Body 27

Physical Appearance 28

Internal Organs and Systems 32

Sensation and Perception 39

Theories of Biological Aging 46

Summary 49

Suggested Readings 50

3. Health and Illness 51

Demographic Differences 52

Acute and Nonlethal Chronic Disorders 55

Life-Threatening Disorders 57

Accidents 66

Health Maintenance and Disease Prevention 69

Summary 75

Suggested Readings 77

4. Cognitive Development and Change 79

Intelligence 80

Memory and Learning 98

Problem Solving and Creativity 102

Summary 106

Suggested Readings 107

5. Personality Development and Disorders 109

Theories of Personality Development 110

Personality Traits 116

Stress and Coping 122

Mental Disorders 126

Summary 135

Suggested Readings 137

Sex in Adulthood 139

Love and Loving 150

Married and Unmarried Adults 156

Summary 168

Suggested Readings 170

7. Families and Friends 173

Parents and Children 174

Grandparents 185

Siblings and Other Relatives 189

Friendships 191

Summary 197

Suggested Readings 199

8. Gender, Race, and Social Status 201

Gender 202

Race and Ethnicity 213

Social Class and Status 220

Ageism 224

Summary 227

Suggested Readings 228

9. Living Environments 231

Location and Relocation 231

Housing 237

Transportation and Assistance 247

Summary 252

Suggested Readings 254

10. Income, Employment, and Retirement 255

Income and Poverty 255

Employment 262

Retirement 275

Summary 282

Suggested Readings 284

11. Spending, Leisure, and Other Nonemployment Activities 285

Expenditures 285

Leisure Activities 291

Other Activities of Older Adults 294

Summary 305

Suggested Readings 306

Crime and Criminal Behavior 309

War and Terrorism 322

Law and the Elderly 330

Summary 334

Suggested Readings 336

13. Death, Bereavement, and Widowhood 337

Demographics and Causes 338

Perspectives and Emotions 343

The Process of Dying 349

The Aftermath of Death 354

Widowhood 358

Summary 364

Suggested Readings 366

Glossary 367

References 387

Author Index 419

Subject Index 427

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