1. Monaghan, D., Bridages, R., and Cotman, C. (1989) The excitatory amino acid receptors: their classes, pharmacology, and distinct properties in the function of the central nervous system. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 29, 365-402.
2. Conn, P. J. and Pin, J. P. (1997) Pharmacology and functions of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 37, 205-237.
3. Wang, J. Q. and Mao, L. (1999) Pharmacological regulation of striatal gene expression by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 20, 577-584.
4. Wang, J. Q. and McGinty, J. F. (1996) Glutamatergic and cholinergic regulation of immediate early gene and neuropeptide gene expression in the striatum, in Pharmacological Regulation of Gene Expression in the CNS (Merchant, K. M., ed.), CRC, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 81-113.
5. Wang, J. Q. and McGinty, J. F. (1999) Glutamate/dopamine interactions mediate the effects of psychostimulant drugs. Addict. Biol. 4, 141-150.
6. Vezina, P. and Kim, J. H. (1999) Metabotropic glutamate receptors and the generation of locomotor activity: Interaction with midbrain dopamine. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 23, 577-589.
7. Dube, L., Smith, A. D., and Bolam, J. P. (1988) Identification of synaptic terminals of thalamic or cortical origin in contact with distinct medium size spiny neurons in the rat neostriatum. J. Comp. Neurol. 267, 455-471.
8. Frotscher M., Rinner U., Hassler R., and Wagner A. (1981) Termination of cortical afferents on identified neurons in the caudate nucleus of the cat: a combined Golgi-electron microscope degeneration study. Exp. Brain Res. 41, 329-337.
9. Smith, Y., Bennett, B. D., Bolam, J. P., Parent, A., and Sadikot, A. F. (1994) Synaptic relationships between dopaminergic afferents and cortical or thalamic input in the sensorimotor territory of the striatum in monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 344, 1-19.
10. Somogyi, P., Bolam, J. P., and Smith, A. D. (1981) Monosynaptic cortical input and local axon collaterals of identified striatonigral neurons. A light and electron microscopic study using the Golgi-peroxidase transport-denegeration procedure. J. Comp. Neurol. 195, 567-584.
11. Lapper, S. R. and Bolam, J. P. (1992) Input from the frontal cortex and the parafascicular nucleus to cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum of the rat. Neuroscience 51, 533-542.
12. Meredith, G. E. and Wouterlood, F. G. (1990) Hippocampal and midline thalamic fibres and terminals in relation to the choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive neurons in nucleus accumbens of the rat: a light and electron microscopic study. J. Comp. Neurol. 296, 204-216.
13. Freund, T. F., Powell, J. F., and Smith, A. D. (1984) Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons in synaptic contact with identified striatonigral neurons, with particular reference to dendritic spines. Neuroscience 13, 1189-1197.
14. Pickel, V. M., Chan, J., and Sesack, S. R. (1992) Cellular basis for interactions between catecholaminergic afferents and neurons containing Leu-enkephalin-like immunorecractivity in rat caudate-putamen nuclei. J. Neurosci. Res. 31, 212.
15. Bouyer, J. J., Park, D. H., Joh, T. H., and Pickel, V. M. (1984) Chemical and structural analysis of the relation between cortical inputs and tyrosine hydroxylase-containing terminals in rat neostriatum. Brain Res. 302, 267-274.
16. Sesack, S. R. and Pickel, V. M. (1990) In the rat medial nucleus accumbens, hippocampal and catecholaminergic terminals converge on spiny neurons and are in apposition to each other. Brain Res. 527, 266-272.
17. Totterdell, S. and Smith, A. D. (1989) Convergence of hippocampal and dopaminergic input onto identified neurons in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 2, 285.
18. Albin, R. L., Makowiec, R. L., Hollingsworth, Z. R., Dure, L. S., IV, Penney, J. B., and Young, A. B. (1992) Excitatory amino acid binding sites in the basal ganglia of the rat: a quantitative autoradiographic study. Neuroscience 46, 35-48.
19. Wullner, U., Testa, C. M., Catania, M. V., Young, A. B., and Penney, J. B., Jr. (1994) Glutamate receptors in striatum and sub-stantia nigra: effects of medial forebrain bundle lesions. Brain Res. 645, 98-102.
20. Ohishi, H., Shigemoto, R., Nakanishi, S., and Mizuno, N. (1993) Distribution of the messenger RNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR2, in the central nervous system of the rat. Neuroscience 53, 1009-1018.
21. Shigemoto, R., Nakanishi, S., and Mizuno, N. (1992) Distribution of the mRNA for a metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) in the central nervous system: an in situ hybridization study in adult and developing rat. J. Comp. Neurol. 322, 121-135.
22. Tanabe, Y., Nomura, A., Masu, M., Shigemoto, R., Mizuno, N., and Nakanishi, S. (1993) Signal transduction, pharmacologic properties, and expression patterns of two rat metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR3 and mGluR4. J. Neurosci. 13, 1372-1378.
23. Testa, C. M., Standaert, D. G., Young, A. B., and Penney, J. B., Jr. (1994) Metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA expression in the basal ganglia of the rat. J. Neurosci. 14, 3005-3018.
24. Fotuhi, M., Sharp, A. H., Glatt, C. E., Hwang, P. M., von Krosigk, M., Snyder, S. H., et al. (1993) Differential localization of phosphoinositide-linked metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in rat brain. J. Neurosci. 13, 2001-2012.
25. Martin, L. J., Blackstone, C. D., Huganir, R. L., and Price, D. L. (1992) Cellular localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor in rat brain. Neuron 9, 259-270.
26. Shigemoto, R., Nomura, S., Ohishi, H., Sugihara, H., Nakanishi, S., and Mizuno, N. (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of a metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, in the rat brain. Neurosci. Lett. 163, 53-57.
27. Bradley, S. R., Standaert, D. G., Levey, A. I., and Conn, P. J. (1999) Distribution of group III mGluRs in rat basal ganglia with subtype-specific antibodies. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 868, 531-534.
28. Kosinski, C. M., Bradley, S. R., Conn. P. J., and Levey, A. I. (1999) Localization of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 mRNA and mGluR7a protein in the rat basal ganglia. J. Comp. Neurol. 415, 266-284.
29. Kerner, J. A., Standaert, D. G., Penny, J. B., Jr., Young, A. B., and Landwehrmeyer, G. B. (1997) Expression of group one metabotropic glutamate receptor subunit mRNAs in neurochemically identified neurons in the rat neostriatum, neocortex, and hippocampus. Mol. Brain Res. 48, 259-269.
30. Tallaksen-Greene, S. J., Kaatz, K. W., Romano, C., and Albin, R. L. (1998) Localization of mGluR1a-like immunoreactivity and mGluR5-like immunoreactivity in identified populations of striatal neurons. Brain Res. 780, 210-217.
31. Testa, C. M., Standaert, D. G., Landwehrmeyer, G. B., Penney, J. B., and Young, A. B. (1995) Differential expression of mGluR5 metabotropic glutamate receptor mRNA by rat striatal neurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 354, 241-252.
32. Testa, C. M., Friberg, I. K., Weiss, S. W., and Standaert, D. G. (1998) Immunohistochemical localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1a and mGluR2/3 in the rat basal ganaliz. J. Comp. Neurol. 390, 5-19.
33. Bradley, S. R., Standaert, D. G., Rhodes, K. J., Rees, H. D., Testa, C. M., Levey, A. I. et al. (1999) Immunohistochemical localization of subtype 4a metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat and mouse basal ganglia. J. Comp. Neurol. 407, 33-46.
34. Petralia, R. S., Wang, Y. X., Niedzielski, A. S., and Wenthold, R. J. (1996) The metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR2 and mGluR3, show unique postsynaptic, presynaptic and glial localization. Neuroscience 71, 949-976.
35. Sacaan, A. I., Monn, J. A., and Schoepp, D. D. (1991) Intrastriatal injection of a selective metabotropic excitatory amino acid receptor agonist induces contralateral turning in the rat. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 259,1366-1370.
36. Sacaan, A. I., Bymaster, F. P., and Schoepp, D. D. (1992) Metabotropic glutamate receptor activation produces extrapyramidal motor system activation that is mediated by striatal dopamine. J. Neurochem. 59, 245-251.
37. Feeley Kearney, J. A. and Albin, R. L. (1995) Adenosine A2 receptor-mediated modulation of contralateral rotation induced by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 287,115-120.
38. Feeley Kearney, J. A., Frey, K. A., and Albin, R. L. (1997) Metabotropic glutamate agonist- induced rotation: a pharmacological, Fos immunohistochemical, and [14C]-2-deoxyglucose antoradiographic study. J. Neurosci. 17, 4415-4425.
39. Kaatz, K. W. and Albin, R. L. (1995) Intrastriatal and intrasubthalamic stimulation of metabotropic glutamate receptors: a behavioral and Fos immunohistochemical study. Neuroscience 66, 55-65.
40. Smith, I. D. and Beninger, R J. (1996) Contralateral turning caused by metabotropic glutamate receptor stimulation in the dorsal striatum is reversed by MCPG, TTX, and cis- Fluenthixol. Behav. Neurosci. 110, 282-286.
41. Attarian, S. and Amalric, M. (1997) Microinjection of the metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist 15, 3R-1-aminocyclopen-tane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid into the nucleus accumbens induces dopamine-dependent locomotor activation in the rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 809-816.
42. Kim, J. H. and Vezina, P. (1997) Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens increases locomotor activity in a dopamine-dependent manner. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 283, 962-968.
43. Schoepp, D. D., Jane, D. E., and Monn, J. A. (1999) Pharmacological agents acting at subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Neuropharmacology 38, 1431-1476.
44. Swanson, C. J. and Kalivas, P. W. (2000) Regulation of locomotor activity by metabotropic glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 292, 406-414.
45. Wang, J. Q. and Mao, L. (2000) Sustained behavioral stimulation following selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat striatum. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 65, 439-447.
46. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (2000) Motor stimulation following bilateral injection of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist into the dorsal striatum of rats: evidence against dependence on ionotropic glutamate receptors. Psychopharmacology 148, 367-373.
47. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (1999) Protection against acute amphetamine-induced behavior by microinjection of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist into the dorsal striatum of rats. Neurosci. Lett. 270, 103-106.
48. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (2000) Distinct inhibition of acute cocaine-stimulated motor activity following microinjection of a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist into the dorsal striatum of rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 66, 1-9.
49. Cartmell, J., Monn, J. A., and Schoepp, D. D. (1999) The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist LY354740 and LY379268 selectively attenuate phencyclidine versus ¿-amphetamine motor behaviors in rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Thre. 291, 161-170.
50. Kim, J. H. and Vezina, P. (1998) Metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens contribute to amphetamine-induced locomotion. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 284, 317-322.
51. Taylor, D. and Ho, B. T. (1978) Comparison of inhibition of monoamine uptake by cocaine, methylphenidate and amphetamine. Res. Commun. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 21, 67-75.
52. Hu, G., Duffy, P., Swanson, C., Ghasemzadeh, M. B., and Kalivas, P. W. (1999) The regulation of dopamine transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 289, 412-416.
53. Mao, L., Lau, Y. S., and Wang, J. Q. (2000) Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release in rat dorsal striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 404, 289-297.
54. Fisher, J. F. and Cho, A. K. (1979) Chemical release of dopamine from striatal homogenates: evidence of an exchange diffusion model. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 208, 203-209.
55. Trombley, P. Q. and Westbrook, G. L. (1992) L-AP4 inhibits calcium currents and synaptic transmission via a G-protein-coupled glutamate receptor. J. Neurosci. 12, 2043-2050.
56. Kim, J. H. and Vezina, P. (1998) Metabotropic glutamate receptors are necessary for sensitization by amphetamine. NeuroReport 9, 403-406.
57. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (2001) Differentially altered mGluR1 and mGluR5 mRNA expression in rat caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens in the development and expression of behavioral sensitization to repeated administration of amphetamine. Synapse 41, 230-240.
58. Morgan, J. I. and Curran, T. (1989) Stimulus-transcription coupling in neurons: role of cellular immediate early genes. TINS 12, 459-462.
59. Vaccarino, F. M., Hayward, M. D., Nestler, E. J., Duman, R. S., and Tallman, J. F. (1992) Differential induction of immediate early genes by excitatory amino acid receptor types in primary cultures of cortical and striatal neurons. Mol. Brain Res. 12, 233-241.
60. Wang, J. Q. (1998) Regulation of immediate early gene c-fos and zif/268 messenger RNA expression in rat striatum by metabotropic glutamate receptor. Mol. Brain Res. 57, 46-54.
61. Morgan, J. I. and Curran, T. (1995) Immediate-early genes: ten years on. TINS 18, 66-67.
62. Wang, J. Q. and McGinty, J. F. (1998) Metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist increases neuropeptide mRNA expression in rat striatum. Mol. Brain Res. 54, 262-270.
63. Cole, R. L., Konradi, C., Douglass, J., and Hyman S. E. (1995) Neuronal adaptation to amphetamine and dopamine: molecular mechanisms of prodynorphin gene regulation in rat striatum. Neuron 14, 813-823.
64. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (2001) Selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors upregulates preprodynor-phin, substance P and preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rat dorsal striatum. Synapse 39, 82-94.
65. Takumi, Y., Matsubara, A., Rinvik, E., and Ottersen, O. P. (1999) The arrangement of glutamate receptors in excitatory synapses. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 868, 474-482.
66. Mao, L. and Wang, J. Q. (2001) Upregulation of preprodynorphin and preproenkephalin mRNA expression by selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in characterized primary cultures of rat striatal neurons. Mol. Brain Res. 86, 125-137.
67. Arai, I., Shimazoe, T., Shibata, S., Inoue, H., Yoshimatsu, A., and Watanabe, S. (1996) Enhancement of dopamine release from the striatum through metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in methamphetamine sensitized rats. Brain Res. 729, 277-280.
68. Ohno, M. and Watanabe, S. (1995) Persistent increase in dopamine release following activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens. Neurosci. Lett. 200,113-116.
69. Taber, M. T. and Fibiger, H. C. (1995) Electrical stimulation of the prefrontal cortex increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of the rat: modulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors. J. Neurosci. 15, 3896-3904.
70. Verma, A. and Moghaddam, B. (1998) Regulation of striatal dopamine release by metabotropic glutamate receptors. Synapse 28, 220-226.
71. Bruton, R. K., Ge, J., and Barnes, N. M. (1999) Group I mGlu receptor modulation of dopamine release in the rat striatum. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 369, 175-181.
72. Liu, J. and Moghaddan, B. (1995) Regulation of glutamate efflux by excitatory amino acid receptors: evidence for tonic inhibitory and phasic excitatory regulation. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 274, 1209-1215.
73. Moroni, F., Cozzi, A., Lombardi, G., Sourtcheva, S., Leonardi, P., Carfi, M., et al. (1998) Presynaptic mGluRl type receptors potentiate transmitter output in the rat cortex. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 347, 189-195.
74. Samuel, D., Pisano, P., Forni, C., Nieoullon, A., and Goff, L. K. (1996) Involvement of the glutamatergic metabotropic receptors in the regulation of glutamate uptake and extracellular excitatory amino acid levels in the striatum of chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. Brain Res. 739,156-162.
75. Battaglia, G., Monn, J. A., and Schoepp, D. D. (1997) In vivo inhibition of veratridine- evoked release of striatal excitatory amino acids by the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist LY354740 in rats. Neurosci. Lett. 229, 161-164.
76. Cozzi, A., Attucci, S., Peruginelli, F., Maura, M., Luneia, R., Pellicciari, R., et al. (1997) Type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors tonically inhibit transmitter release in rat caudate nucleus: in vivo studies with (2S,1'S,2'S,3'R)-2-(2'-car-boxy-3'-phenylcyclopropyl)glycine, a new potent and selective antagonist. Eur. J. Neurosci. 9, 1350-1355.
77. Bading, H., Ginty, D. D., and Greenberg, M. E. (1993) Regulation of gene expression in hippocampal neurons by distinct calcium signaling pathways. Science 260, 181-186.
78 Greenberg, M. E., Thospson, M. A., and Sheng, M. (1992) Calcium regulation of immediate early gene transcription. J. Physiol. 86, 99-108.
79. Vaccarino, F. M., Liljequist, S., and Tallman, J. F. (1991) Modulation of protein kinase C translocation by excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in primary cultures of neurons. J. Neurochem. 57, 391-396.
80. Wang, J. Q. and McGinty, J. F. (1996) Intrastriatal injection of the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist MCPG attenuates acute amphetamine-stimulated neuropeptide mRNA expression in rat striatum. Neurosci. Lett. 218,13-16.
81. Mao, L., Conquet, F., and Wang, J. Q. (2001) Augmented motor activity and reduced striatal preprodynorphin mRNA induction in response to acute amphetamine administration in mGluR1 knockout mice. Neuroscience, 106, 303-312.
82. Kuzmin, A. V., Gerrits, M. A., and Van Ree, J. M. (1998) Kappa-opioid receptor blockade with nor-binaltorphimine modulates cocaine self-administration in drug-naive rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 358, 197-202.
83. Shipperberg, T. S. and Heidbreder, C. (1995) The delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole prevents sensitization to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 280, 55-61.
84. Shippenberg, T. S., LeFevours, A., and Herdbreder, C. (1996) Kappa-opioid receptor agonists prevent sensitization to the conditioned rewarding effects of cocaine. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 276, 545-554.
85. Carlezon, W. A., Jr., Thome, J., Olson, V. G., Lane-Ladd, S. B., Brodkin, E. S., Hiroi, N., et al. (1998) Regulation of cocaine reward by CREB. Science 282, 2272-2275.
86. Knopfel, T., Kuhn, R., and Allgeier, H. (1995) Metabotropic glutamate receptors: novel targets for drug development. J. Med. Chem. 38, 1417-1426.
87. Nicholetti, F., Bruno, V., Copani, A., Casabona, G., and Knopfel, T. (1996) Metabotropic glutamate receptors: a new target for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders? TINS 19, 267-271.
88. Lujan, R., Nusser, Z., Roberts, J. D., Shigemoto, R., and Somogyi, P. (1996) Perisynaptic localization of metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR1 and mGluR5 on dendrites and dendritic spines in the rat hippocampus. Eur. J. Neurosci. 8, 1488-1500.
89. Nusser, Z., Mulvihill, E., Streit, P., and Somogyi, P. (1994) Subsynaptic segregation of metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors as revealed by immunogold localization. Neuroscience 61, 421-427.
90. McGeorge, A. J. and Fanll, R. L. M. (1988) The organization of the projection from the cerebral cortex to the stratum in the rat. Neuroscience 29, 503-537.
Was this article helpful?
The comprehensive new ebook All About Alzheimers puts everything into perspective. Youll gain insight and awareness into the disease. Learn how to maintain the patients emotional health. Discover tactics you can use to deal with constant life changes. Find out how counselors can help, and when they should intervene. Learn safety precautions that can protect you, your family and your loved one. All About Alzheimers will truly empower you.