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a GluR6 and 7 could not be distinguished.

a GluR6 and 7 could not be distinguished.

Ionotropic glutamate receptors are expressed in the spinal cord and in the brain, with high expression mainly in neurons. However, functional ionotropic glutamate receptors and their subunits are also found in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and glial precursor cells (reviewed in refs. 11 and 33), and in microglia (34). Moreover, ionotropic glutamate receptor expression has also been found outside the brain [e.g., in the heart (35) and in the male lower urogenital tract (36)]; receptors were shown to be functional in pancreatic islet cells (37,38). Moreover, in the skin, glutamate receptors appear to play a role in pain perception (39, and references therein). Thus, drugs impermeable to the blood-brain barrier that are targeted to glutamate receptors might find uses in several clinical situations.

Although most ionotropic glutamate receptors are localized postsynaptically, recently NMDA receptor immunoreactivity has also been found on presynaptic terminals (40,41).

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