The third factor that influences theamountof kineticenergylostinthe body is the bullet itself its caliber, construction, and configuration. Blunt-nose bullets, being less streamlined than spitzer (pointed) bullets, are retarded more by the tissue and thereforelose greateramountsof kinetic energy. Expanding bullets, which open up or mushroom in the tissue, are retarded more than streamlined fullmetal-jacketedbullets, which resist expansion and lose only a minimum amountof kineticenergyastheypass through thebody.
Agoricus (presumably a misprint for Agaricus) bisporus tyrosinase oxidizes N-acetyltyramine with a lag period (typical for phenols), but the lag for hordenine is indefinitely long. The lag is eliminated by the addition of a trace of a catechol. The normal lag period is terminated by the autocatalytic oxidation of phenol to catechol. N,N-Dipropyldopamine oxidation yields as final product N,N-dipropylindoliumolate J460 . Mushroom (presumably A. bisporus) tyrosinase, This reaction has been detected in nematode, locust, Thalictrum, avocado, Mucuna and mushroom A2572, A2804, A3975, B765, E769, F112, F855, H242, H907 . At least in some instances, the reaction is probably catalysed by the same enzyme that forms l-dopa from l-tyrosine.
These authors reported high efficiency separations of heroin, heroin impurities, degradation products, and adulterants (Fig. 8.1). Also discriminated were acidic and neutral impurities present in heroin seized by law enforcement agencies, as well as in illicit cocaine samples, with resolution of benzoylecgon-ine, cocaine, cis- and frans-cinnamoylcocaine. MEKC was also used with a broad spectrum of other compounds of forensic interest, including psilocybin, morphine, phenobarbital, psilocin, codeine, methaqualone, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), amphetamine, chlordiazepoxide, methamphetamine, lora-zepam, diazepam, fentanyl, phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP), cannabidiol, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which were all separated with baseline resolution.
The 1960s saw the introduction of semi-jacketed soft-point and hollow-point bullets for both automatic pistols and revolvers and lead hollow-point bullets for revolvers. These bullets were usually lighter and driven at higher velocities than the traditional bullets. Of the new designs, the semi-jacketed hollow point has been the most successful. This bullet and the all lead hollow-point are designed to mushroom in the body, causing penetrating rather than As a result of research by manufacturers and redesign of the jacket and cavity, semi-jacketed hollowpoint pistol bullets now mushroom more consistently. Some of the designs of interest are Hydra-Shok . Manufactured by Federal, the cartridges are loaded with a semi-jacketed hollow-point bullet with a lead post in the center of the hol-lowpoint (Figure 10.12). The jacket is notched to further expansion. It is made in both revolver and pistol cartridges in calibers from .380 ACP and up. It is a favorite of many law enforcement agencies...
The Aryans looked down on certain spices. Vedic literature describes garlic, leeks, mushrooms, and onions as native foods despised by the Aryans. Some scholars explain that this aversion arose from the common practice at the time of fertilizing these crops with a manure of human waste.
More upscale and innovative dishes with authentic cooking of Canton, Peking, Shanghai, and Szechwan are emerging from the standard Chinese American takeout fare. Noodles, bowl meals, and stir-fries will continue to appeal to many, but with more intense and exciting flavors. Lighter, subtle Cantonese style sauces are supplanting heavy, starchy types. More innovative bowl meals and dim sum dishes will appear at American restaurants. Many foods that taste and look like chicken, pork, or shrimp in Chinese vegetarian cooking will emerge, using mushrooms, tofu, and a variety of vegetables. Braised five-spice lentils, oven-roasted gingered potatoes, sesame-scented bean curd, and pan caramelized Chinese cabbage are appearing in upscale menus. Simplicity, freshness, taste, and presentation are paramount to Japanese cooking, which will continue to appeal to the adventurous young and mainstream. More authentic flavorings such as horseradish and wasabi condiments, soba and rice bowls, vegetarian...
Figure 3 TRAF structures. (A) Mushroom-shaped trimeric structure of the TRAF domain of TRAF2 in complex with TNF-R2 20 , shown with the three-fold axis vertical. The coiled-coil region (stalk) is in yellow. The P-strands of the three TRAF-C domains are shown, respectively, in blue, green, and purple. Bound peptides from TNF-R2 are shown as orange arrows indicating the direction of the peptide chains. (B) Ribbon diagram of the complex between TRADD and TRAF2 28 , shown with the three-fold axis vertical. TRAF2 blue, green, and purple TRADD magenta, red, and yellow. Figure 3 TRAF structures. (A) Mushroom-shaped trimeric structure of the TRAF domain of TRAF2 in complex with TNF-R2 20 , shown with the three-fold axis vertical. The coiled-coil region (stalk) is in yellow. The P-strands of the three TRAF-C domains are shown, respectively, in blue, green, and purple. Bound peptides from TNF-R2 are shown as orange arrows indicating the direction of the peptide chains. (B) Ribbon diagram of the...
Examination of Listeria-infected host cells has provided many important clues about pathogen motility. Renal tubular epithelial PtK2 cells spread and flatten when grown on glass coverslips after infection, extracellular bacteria are washed away, and addition of gentamicin (10 g mL) prevents extracellular bacterial growth. This antibiotic penetrates cells poorly and does not impair proliferation of intracellular bacteria8,11,12. Within 3-4 hours postinfec-tion13, Listeria begin moving at rates of 0.1 to 0.45 m sec. As they move, phase-dense tails form, and those bacteria moving more rapidly have longer tails. These tails contain numerous actin filaments, as indicated by staining with fluorescently conjugated phalloidin, a mushroom toxin that specifically binds to actin filaments. Microinjection of live, infected cells with rhodamine-conjugated actin monomers allows the kinetic analysis of actin assembly and disassembly in these tails. More rapid motility...
Hallucinogens are as old as civilization. Many cultures recorded eating certain plants specifically to induce visions or alter the perception of reality. Often these hallucinations were part of a religious or prophetic experience. Shamans in Siberia were known to eat the hallucinogenic mushroom Amanita muscaria. The ancient Greeks and the Vikings also used naturally occurring plant hallucinogens. Peyote, a spineless cactus native to the southwestern United States and Mexico was used by native peoples, including the Aztecs, to produce visions. Although several hundred plants are known to contain compounds that cause hallucinations, most hallucinogens are synthesized in illegal laboratories for delivery as street drugs. The best known hallucinogens are lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, psilocybin, and MDMA (ecstasy). Phencyclidine (PCP, angel dust) can produce hallucinations, as can amphetamines and
If a 9-mm hollow-point bullet expands (mushrooms) to 12 mm in passing through an organ, the amount of tissue crushed and shredded will, theoretically, be greater than if the bullet did not expand or if it was a solid bullet. In reality, a solid or non-expanding bullet may produce equal if not more direct injury to tissue, if it tumbles after achieving penetration while the hollow-point doesn't. Solid bullets may even be more lethal than mushrooming bullets. As a general rule, mushrooming bullets do not penetrate as deeply as solid bullets because they mushroom. If the aorta, for example, is 14 inches from the skin surface and the mushrooming bullet stops after 12 inches of penetration but the solid bullet travels for 18 inches, then the solid bullet is more lethal than the hollow-point. There is no objective proof that in real-life situations mushrooming of a bullet plays a significant role in increasing lethality or the stopping power of the bullet. This is because of the other...
Histological studies of the brain have consistently shown abnormalities of neuron structure in FXS. Specifically, the dendritic spines in brains of persons with FXS are longer and thinner when compared to the mushroom shape of mature spines seen in typically developing individuals (52,55-58). Long, thin spines in FXS resemble the immature spines of healthy controls and indicates that FMRP may play a role in synaptic development. This hypothesis is supported by observations that dendritic spines are more densely packed in FXS, which suggests a failure of natural synaptic pruning during dendrite formation (56). A recent study found that FMRP interacts
A small bat, characterized by the presence of conspicuous horseshoe shaped sucker-like pads on the thumb and soles of the feet. The ears are separate and large, some 1.18-1.38 in (30-35 mm) in length. Each ear has a tragus, which is fused along its anterior edge to the pinna the meatus is partly closed by this conspicuous mushroom-shaped process, which comprises a kidney-shaped fleshy expansion surmounting a short stalk. The upper lip extends significantly beyond the lower. The pelage is moderately dense and mid-brown to golden brown, with some russet tinges. For this reason, the bat is also known as the golden bat. The ears are very large, and the thumb is quite small and has a vestigial claw. The toes of the feet have only two phalanges and are syndactylous (joined together) for much of their length. The tail projects noticeably beyond the free edge of the interfemoral membrane. The skull is short, broad, and rounded. The tympanic bullae and cochleae are rather large but not...
Immune-mediated lung diseases extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a chronic granulomatous disease of the lungs due to inhalation of organic dusts, e.g., farmer's lung, bird-fancier's lung, mushroom worker's lung. Upper lobes are more severely affected than basal portions with fibrotic changes occurring in advanced disease.
The symptoms associated with nerve agent intoxication may be the result of other organophosphate compounds such as the carbamate insecticides. Cholinergic crisis can be the result of a variety of medication overdoses, including neostigmine, physostigmine, pyridostigmine bromide, PCP, phenothiazines, clonidine, and muscarinic mushrooms. In addition, CNS symptoms may be mimicked by stroke, seizure, or other neuromuscular disorders. Such clinical findings as rhinorrhea, lacrimation, and bronchospasm may also be present with exposure to riot-control agents.
Every plant needs at least some light in order to grow and prosper, but the amount really varies. Mushrooms (which are actually fungi), for instance, can grow in bins in a dim basement or shed daisies and waterlilies, on the other hand, crave hot, full-on sunshine. Plenty of plants rest in the middle of these two extremes, of course. And some plants, like azaleas and daylilies, grow well enough in less-optimum light but don't flower well in the shade. In terms of labeling, just remember that full sun usually means six or more hours per day part-day, of course, refers to less.
In the U.S. state of Michigan, a tree-root-infecting fungus, Armillaria bulbosa, which had colonized an extensive area of forests, was discovered (Smith et al., 1992). This fungus forms mushroom-like fruit bodies at the base of the tree trunk that are honey-colored, hence the fungus is commonly called the honey fungus. The question arose whether a wide area in the forest was infected by an individual fungus produced from a single spore but, since soil is an opaque medium, the area of spread of subterranean mycelium had to be estimated indirectly. In places, thousands of individual hyphae of this fungus aggregate and intertwine to form dark, macroscopic structures called rhizomorphs that look like shoelaces The rhizomorphs have a large food base as they come out from the stump of a dead tree and are therefore able to extend through non-supportive terrain and infect roots of healthy trees (Figure 1.3). Formation of a rhizo-morph is a fungal strategy for bringing a large starter energy...
Mushroom poisoning (Amanita phalloides) One of the best documented uses of milk thistle is in the treatment of poisoning by the mushroom Amanita phalloides (death cap). Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps and severe diarrhoea usually occur 8-12 hours after ingestion with extensive hepatic necrosis occurring 1-2 days later. A mortality rate of 20-30 has been observed but can be as high as 50 in children under 10 years of age (Floersheim et al 1982). Several clinical studies have shown silybin (20-50 mg kg day IV) to protect against hepatotoxicity when administered within 48 hours. One report of pooled data from 452 case reports of A. phalloides poisoning showed a highly significant difference in mortality in favour of silybin (Sailer et al 2001).
The fungiform papillae are mushroom-shaped (hence their name) and are distributed among the filiform papillae. Most of them contain taste buds. The circumvallate papillae are located in a V-shaped row on the posterior surface of the tongue. All of them contain taste buds.
The papillae and their associated taste buds constitute the specialized mucosa of the oral cavity. Although filiform papillae do not have taste buds, the other three types, viz., fungiform, circumvallate, and foliate, contain taste buds in their epithelium. The fungiform (i.e., mushroom-shaped) papillae (see Plate 45) are most numerous near the tip of the tongue. Taste buds are present in the epithelium on their dorsal surface. The taste buds in the epithelium covering the circumvallate and foliate papillae are located in deep clefts that separate the papillae from adjacent mucosa or from each other, respectively. Ducts of lingual salivary glands (von Ebner's glands a component of the minor salivary glands) empty their serous secretions into the moat surrounding each circumvallate papilla. The secretions flush material from the moat to allow the taste buds to respond to new stimuli. Similarly, ducts of small serous glands empty into the clefts between foliate papillae.
How Prepared and Consumed Mexicans and Central Americans use epazote fresh in salads, soups, and meats and especially to enhance huitlacoche, mushrooms, bean- and chile-based foods such as refried beans (frijoles refritos), frijoles negros, moles, or rice and beans. It is usually added toward the end of cooking to prevent bitterness in the finished product. Spaniards flavor teas with epazote.
How Prepared and Consumed in the Mediterranean, savory is used mostly for vegetables, such as beans, cabbage, lentils, potatoes, and mushrooms. The Europeans use it as part of their herbes fines and bouquet garni blends to flavor sauces, game meats, and stuffing. Eastern Europeans including Bulgarians and Georgians add to grilled meats, potatoes, vegetables, and fish dishes. It pairs well with other sweet herbs, such as thyme, sage, and rosemary. Iranians and Arabs add to meat and vegetable dishes as well as for dips. Savory is used in scrambled eggs and other egg
The substrate of the enzyme trehalase is trehalose, commonly called mushroom or fungal sugar. It is a disaccharide composed of two glucose units joined by an a,1 1 glycosidic bond (Figure 10.8). Remarkable effects of trehalose on the protection of membranes and thermostabilization of enzymes has been found (Crowe et al., 1992). Bharadwaj and Maheshwari (1999) chose the enzyme trehalase (which hydrolyzes trehalose) for a comparative investigation in a thermophilic and a mesophilic fungus. Thermomyces lanuginosus grows optimally between 50 and 55 C, whereas Neurospora crassa grows optimally
How Prepared and Consumed marjoram is typically used in European cooking and is added to fish sauces, clam chowder, butter-based sauces, salads, tomato-based sauces, vinegar, mushroom sauces, and eggplant. In Germany, marjoram is called the sausage herb and is used with thyme and other spices in different types of sausages. It is usually added at the end of cooking to retain its delicate flavor or as a garnish. It goes well with vegetables including cabbages, potatoes, and beans. The seeds are used to flavor confectionary and meat products. The French add marjoram to bouquet garni and herbes fines for flavoring pork, fish, and lamb dishes.
It pairs well with nuts, grains, legumes, mushrooms, vinegar, and grilled, barbecued, or roasted meats. Iranians rub asafoetida on warmed plates before placing meat on them. Afghans and Persians also eat the stem and the leaves as vegetables, the odor disappearing once they are boiled.
Actin filaments are essential for various stages of leukocyte migration as well as for the phagocytotic functions of various cells (see page 28). Some drugs, such as cytochalasin B and cytochalasin D, prevent actin polymerization by binding to the plus end of the actin filament inhibiting lymphocyte migration and phagocytosis. Several toxins of poisonous mushrooms, such as phalloiclin, also bind to actin filaments, preventing their depolymerization. Prolonged exposure of the cell to these substances can disrupt the dynamic equilibrium between F-actin and G-actin, causing cell death.
In arthropods, as in vertebrates, afferents from ONs project to glomeruli in the CNS, maintaining the topographic organization of the expressed ORs in the sensory projections (Wong, Wang et al. 2002). There are 43 olfactory glomeruli in the Drosophila antennal lobe, the fly equivalent of vertebrate olfactory bulbs. As in vertebrates, functional imaging of brain activity in insects shows that different odors elicit activity in different glomeruli (Wong, Wang et al. 2002). Projection neurons then relay input from the antennal lobe to the mushroom body and the lateral horn of the fly protocerebrum in a stereotyped set of axon branching patterns (Marin et al. 2002), for higher processing. If, as in vertebrates, a combinatorial code defines an odor, the specifics of how input from different ORs is integrated in the higher areas of the insect brain remain to be elucidated. It is known that projection neurons connect to a stereotyped set of third-order neurons, and it is at the level of...
Computerized axial tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MR angiography (MRA) 1,2,39 . Plain radiographs can show calcified tumors and regions of hyperostotic bone. Angiography may be helpful for the evaluation of the safety and feasibility of preoperative embolization of highly vascular meningiomas 40 . Angiography is able to demonstrate the main arterial blood supply and also clearly delineates the extent of collateral branches. CT is capable of detecting the majority of meninigomas, especially at wide window and level settings that optimally visualize bone involvement 39,41 . Hyper-ostosis and lytic regions of bone are well delineated by CT. On nonenhanced CT, most meningiomas appear isodense to slightly hyperdense compared to brain. The tumors are usually homogeneous in density and have a variable amount of calcification (i.e., punctate or confluent). Tumors with significant calcification are more likely to remain stable at the time of subsequent follow-up. After...
Metabolically active organs such as the brain, liver, and kidneys store small quantities of biotin. Bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract synthesize biotin. The vitamin is widely distributed in foods, and dietary deficiencies are rare. Good sources include liver, egg yolk, nuts, legumes, and mushrooms.
A small bat, characterized by horseshoe shaped sucker-like pads on the thumb and soles of the feet the ears are separate and large, each with a mushroom-like tragus, comprising a kidney-shaped fleshy expansion surmounting a short stalk upper lip extends significantly beyond the lower the pelage is moderately dense and mid-brown to golden brown, with some russet tinges
48 of the diet is vertebrates with 31 land crabs. During the wet season 54 of the diet is invertebrates, mainly beetles and grasshoppers, and small mammals make up 20 . Fruit and carrion form the remainder of the food. Frogs, lizards, mushrooms, and snails have also been found in stomachs.
Compost is decomposed plant debris prepared by gathering refuse material in a heap to hasten the decay of the material and reduce its bulk. The heat produced in the heaped mass of garbage, plant residues, herbivore dung and kitchen and municipal waste kills pests, mesophilic microorganisms and drives off toxic ammonia. The process of production of organic manure by composting is an unwitting exploitation of thermophilic microorganisms. A similar exploitation of thermophilic fungi is in the preparation of substrate for the cultivation of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. A mixture of herbivore dung and straw is composted to give the material a physical texture that favors the growth of mushroom mycelium. Thermophilic fungi, in particular Scytalidium thermophilum (syn. Torula thermophila, Humicola grisea var. thermoidea, Humicola insolens), play a dominant role in the preparation of mushroom compost (Straatsma and Samson, 1993). The majority of the about 30 currently known species...
Feed predominantly on the ground but sometimes in trees, eating acorns in addition to cones, needles and bark of cedar trees. Also eat mushrooms and bulbs dug from the ground, along with various invertebrates (particularly insects and scorpions) and occasionally other animal prey.
Melanin is a key factor determining the color of skin. The enzyme tyrosinase plays the most important role in melanin synthesis (melanogenesis) 1,2 . Several tyrosinase inhibitors (chemicals, plant extracts, animal products) have been proposed, based on the view that melanogenesis can be controlled and skin-whitening products developed if tyrosinase activity can be suppressed. However, few have been put to practical use. In practice, it is difficult to develop these candidate materials from in vitro studies to approval for human use, even if inhibitory effects on mushroom-derived tyrosinase or pigment cells can be identified. In addition to showing adequate efficacy and safety, there are many problems to consider, such as stability of the products, production and marketing costs, and perception of the user.
U. maydis exemplifies several features of sexual development also found in the familiar mushroom fungi. In the absence of morphological differentiation of gametangia, recognition of conjugants is based on pheromone-based recognition. There are hundreds of different genetically determined mating types (individuals). The a locus has two known mating types with each allele containing two genes, one for a pheromone polypeptide and one for a pheromone receptor. The necessary condition for a successful mating is that two conjugant partners must be complimentary. Self-nonself recognition is at the level of protein dimerization. The significance of fertilization (diploidy) being postponed in favor of an extended dikaryotic phase is elusive. Despite the lack of morphological differentiation in fusing partners, fertilization and meiosis are still involved. Sexual fusion reprograms development the mating of two compatible haploid sporidia switches to a filamentous form that is pathogenic....
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