Semen contains fluids and sperm from the testis and secretory products from the epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands. It is alkaline and may help to neutralize the acid environment of the urethra and the vagina. Semen also contains prostaglandins that may influence sperm transit in both the male and female reproductive ducts and that may have a role in implantation of a fertilized ovum.

The average ejaculate of semen has a volume of about 3 mL and normally contains up to 100 million sperm per mL. It is estimated that 20% of the sperm in any ejaculate are morphologically abnormal and nearly 25% are im-motile.

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