• Parasympathetic presynaptic outflow to the thoracic viscera is via the vagus nerve (X). The postsynaptic neurons have their cell bodies in the walls or in the substance of the organs of the thorax.
• Sympathetic presynaptic outflow to the thoracic organs is from the upper thoracic segments of the spinal cord. Sympathetic postsynaptic neurons for the heart are mostly in the cewical ganglia; their axons make up the cardiac nerves. Postsynaptic neurons for the other thoracic viscera are in ganglia of the thoracic part of the sympathetic trunk. The axons are in small splanchnic newes that travel from the sympathetic trunk to the organs.
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