myometrium days. The average blood loss in die menstrual phase is 35 to 50 mL. Blood flow through the straight arteries maintains the stratum basale.
As noted, this process is cyclic. Figure 22.14 shows a single cycle of the endometrium and then demonstrates a gravid state as it is established at the end of a secretory phase. In the absence of fertilization, cessation of bleeding would accompany the growth and maturation of new ovarian follicles. The epithelial cells would rapidly proliferate and migrate to restore the surface epithelium as the proliferative phase of the next cycle begins.
In the absence of ovulation (a cycle referred to as an anovulatoty cycle), a corpus luteum does not form, and progesterone is not produced. In the absence of progesterone, the endometrium does not enter the secretory phase and continues in the proliferative phase until menstruation. In cases of infertility, biopsies of the endometrium can be used to diagnose such anovulatory cycles as well as other disorders of the ovary and endometrium.
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