Epithelial Cell Renewal in the Stomach

Surface mucous cells are renewed approximately every 3 to 5 days

The relatively short lifespan of the surface mucous cells, 3 to 5 days, is accommodated by mitotic activity in the isth-

table 16.2. Physiologic Action of Other Hormones in the Gastrointestinal Tract

Major Action

Hormone Site of Synthesis Stimulates Inhibits

Candidate hormones

Pancreatic polypeptide

Peptide YY

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)

Paracrine hormones



Neurocrine hormones

Bombesin Enkephalins

Vasoactive inhibitory peptide (VIP)


Ileum Colon

Ileum Colon

Mucosa throughout Gl tract

Mucosa throughout Gl tract Stomach

Mucosa and smooth muscle throughout Gl tract Mucosa and smooth muscle throughout Gl tract

Insulin release

Gastric acid secretion

Gastric release

Smooth muscle contraction

Pancreatic enzyme secretion Intestinal secretion

Pancreatic enzyme secretion Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion

Gastric acid secretion Gastric emptying

Gastric acid secretion Gastric emptying

Gastrin release Gastric acid secretion Release of other Gl hormones

Intestinal secretion

Smooth muscle contraction Sphincter contraction

Adapted from Johnson LR, ed. Essential Medical Physiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.

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