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C cells (parafollicular cells), 656, 657 C protein, 254

Ca2"

in fertilization, 738-739 ovarian follicles and, 732 parathyroid hormone and, 661 in skeletal muscle contraction, 256, 256-257 Ca2+ channels ligand-gated, 268 voltage-gated, 256, 290 Ca2+-cahnodulin complex, 266, 267-268 Ca2+-calmodulin/myosin light chain kinase system, 267-268 Cadherin-catenin complex, 99 Cadherin zipper, 101, 102 Cage, nuclear (nuclear basket), 66, 66 Calcification, of cartilage, 171, 171, 197 Calcified cartilage, zone of epiphyseal plate,

196, 197, 210-211p Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin), 6571, 658 Calcium. See Ca2+ Call-Exner bodies, 733, 733 Callus bony, 201, 202 cartilaginous, 201, 202 Calmodulin, 266-268 Calyx (calyces), renal, 604, 606, 606 Canal alimentary, 435-436 of Hering, 543, 545 hyaloid (Cloquet's), 808 inguinal, 685 pilosebaceous, 413 resorption, of bone, 198, 199 of Schlemm, 795, 796, 797 semicircular, 825, 825 Canalicular system, intracellular, 484 Canaliculi bile, 545, 547 lacrimal, 810, S10 Cancer, prostate, 708/; Candidate hormones, 488i, 489/?, 498 Cap, acrosomal, 693 Cap phase, of spermatogenesis, 693 Capacitation, 696, 704, 737-738 Capillaries, 338-340 continuous, 338, 339 discontinuous (sinusoidal), 340 fenestrated, 339, 339-340 fenestrated sinusoidal, 661 functional aspects, 340 glomerular, 609, 611, 612 lymphatic, 347 sinusoidal. See Sinusoids Capillary epithelium, 381-382, 382 Capillary sphincter, 340, 340 Capsule

of hyaline ground substance (territorial matrix), 166, 166

Capsule (continued)

internal and external of muscle fibers, 260, 260 lens, 807-808 of lymph node, 374 renal, 604, 694 splenic, 382, 384 Tenon's, 795 Carbohydrate digestion, 502-5036 Cardia, gastric, 480, 481 Cardiac glands, of stomach, 487 Cardiac muscle, 262, 262-265, 276-277/;, 278-279p injury and repair, 265 Purkinje fibers, 278-279/? structure, 262-265, 263, 264 Cardiovascular system, 326-355. See also Arteriole; Artery; Blood supply; Capillary; Vein arteries aorta, 350-3Sip muscular, 352-353p arterioles, 354-355/? arteriovenous anastomoses (shunts), 340 capillaries, 338-340 clinical correlations atherosclerosis, 337b hypertension, 336b ischemic heart disease, 346/? heart, 343-347, 348-349/?. See also Cardiac entries heart rate, 345-346 lymphatic vessels, 347-348, 354-355p overview, 326-327 veins, 341-343, 352-353p atypical, 343 Carotid body, 347

Cartilage, 164-172. See also Ossification and specific types articular and joint diseases, 1836 bronchial, 580

developing skeleton and, 167, 168,

174-175p elastic, 169, 169, 176-177/? epiphyseal, 195-196, 197 of epiphyseal plate, 196 fibrocartilage, 169-170, 170, 178-179p hyaline, 164-170, 165, 166, 170-171,

171, 172-173/?, 194 overview, 164 reserve, 195 tracheal, 576, 579 Cartilage plates, bronchiolar, 581 Cartilage-specific collagen molecules, 165 Cartilaginous callus, 201, 202 Cataracts, 808

Catecholamines, 291, 642, 665. See also Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine

Catechol-o-methy(transferase, 292 Catenin, 99, 100 Cathepsins, 223 Caveolated tuft cells, 504 Cavity (cavities) central pulp, 451-452 chorionic, 749, 750 marrow (medullary), 181, 182 tympanic, 821, 821-822 CD molecules, 358, 359t CD proteins, 226-228. See also Lymphocytes Cell(s), 18-77. See also individual subtopics and cell types adipose, 146 of bone marrow, 241

of adrenal medulla, 662-665, 664, 665/? adventitial, 240-241, 241. See also Pericytes amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD), 489b anterior horn (ventral motor neurons), 306 of anterior pituitary, 648? antigen-presenting, 144, 366-368, 367,

368, 408, 408-410, 410 argentaffin, 486-487 argyrophil, 486-487 B. See B lymphocytes (B cells) band (stab), 238

basal, of respiratory mucosa, 571,

572-573, 576 blood. See also specific cell types; Blood;

Hemopoiesis bone, 186-192 brush, 570, 572, 576, 579 caveolated tuft, 504 cell cycle, 68-72 centroacinar, 552, 553 CFU-GM, 192 CFU-M, 192 chief, of gastric gland, 484, 485, of parathyroid, (principal), 659-660, 660 chromaffin, 486-487, 662-665, 664, 665b ciliated, 570, 575, 578, 742 Clara, 581, 581-583 classification of somatic, 68 clear, of sweat gland, 416-417, 418 columnar absorptive, 504, 505 connective tissue, 141, 141-148, 142, 143,

145, 145?, 146, 147, 148 cytoplasm, 18-20, 19-20 dark, of sweat gland, 417, 41S dark (IC, intercalated cells of collccting duct), 621-622 endosteal, 182, 186-187 enteroendocrine, 486, 486-487, 488?,

497-498, 499 epidermal, 405-411

epithelioreticular, of thymus. See Epithe-

lioreticular cells fat, histogenesis of, 157, 157-158 foam, 332-333, 333 follicular, 655-656, 656 follicular dendritic, 375, 377 ganglion, 662-663 gastroenteropancreatic (GEP), 489b glial, 653

granulosa lutein, 736

hair of internal ear, 827, 827, 831, 833,

833, 834 halo, of epididymis, 704, 705 Hofbauer, 752, 753 hormone-secreting, 642-643 of immune system, 144/?, 144-149, 147-148

immunocompetent. See Lymphocytes intercalated (IC, dark cells of collecting duct), 621-622 intermediate, 498 Ito (stellate hepatic), 340 Kupffer (stellate sinusoidal macrophages),

340, 366, 541, 541-542 Langerhans', 408, 408-410, 410 Leydig, 684, 687, 688-689, 689, 690 light (CD, collecting duct cells), 621-622 lymphatic, 357-368. See also Lymphatic system; Lymphatic tissue; Lymphocytes

M, of small intestine, 498, 509b mast, 224-225

mastoid air, 824

matrix, of hair follicle, 413

Merkel's, 410-411, 411

of mononuclear phagocytotic system, 144?

mucous, 575-576, 578

mucous neck, 484

Midler's, 800, 804

multipotential lymphoid stem (CFU-Ls), 378

myoepithelial, 418, 455-456, 458 myoid, 271

of nasal epithelium, 570-571

nerve. See also Neurons and specific types types of, 81-84 neurilemmal. See Schwann cells neuroglial, 81 nucleus, 60-68 olfactory, 571 of oral cavity basal, 440

neuroepithelial, 439-440 supporting, 440 organelles of membranous, 20-45, 76-771 nonmembranous, 45-60 osteoprogenitor, 181, 182, 186-188, 187 ovarian hilar, 740 overall structure and types, 19, 19 oxyphil, of parathyroid, 660, 660 Paneth, 496-497, 49S, 504 papillary, of enamel organ, 447 parafollicular (C cells), 656, 657 parietal (oxyntic), 484-485, 485, 486 PAS (macrophages of thymus), 380 peg, 742

periosteal, 182-183 peritubular contractile, 688, 688 perivascular. See Pericytes phalangeal, 831, 834 photoreceptor. See Rods and cones pillar, 831-833, S34 plasma, 147, 147, 363, 364, 499 principal, 704, 705 renal dark (intercalated, IC), 621-622 renal interstitial, 622-623 renal light (collecting, CD), 621 replicating populations of, 141 resting (interphase), 69 reticular, 134, 240-241, 241, 358, 374, 376

Rouget (pericytes), 339

satellite of nervous system, 81, 261,

295-301, 298. See also Satellite cells

Schwann (neurilemmal). See Schwann cells serous, 455, 456, 457 Sertoli, 684, 687, 6S8, 696-701, 698, 699 small granule, 571, 576, 579 of smooth muscle, 266, 266, 267, 269 spermatogenic, 686-692, 688, 691 spindle, 260, 260 stem. See Stem cells structure overview, 19, 19 surface mucous of stomach, 482 sustentacula!- (supporting), 571-572, 572 T. See T lymphocytes (T cells) theca lutein, 736 of thyroid gland, 655 transitional (lymphocytes), 240 undifferentiated mesenchymal, 146-147 Cell accumulation, disorders of, 72, 73

Cell body of neurons (perikaryon), 81, 286-287, 287, 288 response to injury, 314, 314 of sensory neurons, 303-304, 306-307 Cell cycle, 68-72, 69 meiosis, 62, 69-73, 70 mitosis, 68-69, 70, 71 Cell death, 72-75 disorders as compared with cell division, 72, 73

programmed. See Apoptosis Cell division, disorders as compared with cell death, 72, 73 Cell loss, disorders of, 72, 73 Cell populations, types of, 68 Cell renewal, 68

epithelial tissue, 116-117 Cell replication, zone of (small intestine), 501 Cell-cell adhesion, epithelial, 96-104. See also Epithelium, lateral domain; Junction(s) Cell-mediated immune response, 357-358, 361

Cell-to-extracellular matrix adhesion,

104-111 Cementoblasts, 448 Cementocytes, 448 Cementoenamel junction, 441 Cementum, 448, 449 Central diabetes insipidus, 622/; Central framework, of nuclear lamina, 66 Central nervous system (CNS), 311-313. See also Brain; Spinal cord blood-brain barrier, 283, 304-306, 313, 313

connective tissue of, 306, 311-312, 312 defined, 283 function of, 311 gray matter, 311

response to injury, 313-315, 314 Central pulp cavity (pulp chamber), 45 1-452 Centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 539, 539b Centrin, 58

Centrioles and microtubule-organizing centers, 53-58, 56, 57, 58 Centroacinar cells, 552 Centromere, 62, 69

Centrosome (microtubule-organizing center), 53

Cerebellar tissue, 322-323/; Cerebral meninges, 311-312, 312 Cerebral tissue, 311-312, 312, 320-321/; Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 312, 312 Cerumen (ear wax), 821 Ceruminous glands, 821 Cervix, 750, 750-751, 751, 776-777/; CFU-E, 237

CFU-GEMM, 233, 234?, 237, 239, 240 CFU-GM, 192, 237 CFU-M, 192 CFU-Meg, 240

Chains, light and heavy polypeptide, 252 Chambers, of eye, 790, 790-791 Channels, platelet demarcation, 229-230 Charcot-Bottcher bodies, 698 Chemical basis of staining, 6t, 6-7 acidic and basic dyes, 6t, 6-7 aldehyde groups and Schiff reagent, 7, 7 enzyme digestion, 7 enzyme histochemistry, 7, S immunocytochemistry, 8-9, 9 Chemical composition of histologic samples, 5-6

Chemical synapses, 289. See also Neurotransmitters Chemotaxis, 222 Chiasmata, 71, 72 Chief cells, of gastric gland, 484, 485, ■ of parathyroid (principal), 659-660, 660 Cholecalciferol. See Vitamin D Cholecystokinin (CCK), 488?, 555 Cholesterol, 534, 548, 6686 Cholinergic neurotransmitters, 2696 Cholinergic vs. adrenergic receptors, 291 Chondroclasts, 171 Chondrocytes, 164, 166-167, 167 Chondroitin sulfate, 165 Chordae tendineae, 345 Chorionic cavity, 749, 750 Chorionic villi, 751-752, 752 Choroid, 789, 789, 791, 798-799 Choroid fissures, 791 Choroid plexus, 301

Chromaffin cells, 486-487, 662-665, 664,

6656 Chromatids, 62, 69 Chromatin, 60-62 chromosomes, 61, 62 euchromatin, 60 heterochromatin, 60, 61 marginal, 60 nuclear-associated, 60 nucleosomes, 61-62 Chromatin fibril, 61-62 Chromatolysis, 314, 314 Chromogranins, 664 Chromosomes, 61, 62 diploid, 69 haploid, 69 Ciliary body, 789, 789, 790, 796, 797,

797-798 Ciliary dynein, 92 Ciliary muscle, 798 Ciliary processes, 796, 798 Ciliated cells, 570, 575, 578, 742 Circulating satiety factor, 157. See also Leplin Circulation, 328 bronchial, 590 pulmonary, 327, 590 splenic, 385 systemic, 327 uteroplacental, 751, 752 Circumanal glands, 508 Circumvallate papillae, 438, 438 Cirrhosis, hepatic, 542 Cisterna, terminal, 256 Clara cells, 581, 581-583 Clear cells, of sweat gland, 416-417, 418 Clefts, Schmidt-Lanterman, 295, 296 Clinical correlations arteries atherosclerosis, 3376 hypertension, 3366 blood

ABO and Rh blood group systems, 2196 hemoglobin disorders, 220/; collagenopathies, 136/; ear hearing loss-vestibular dysfunction, 832/; vertigo, 8296 endocrine system abnormal thyroid function, 6596 hypothalamic secretion-regulating pituitary hormones, 6506, 653t erythropoiesis, hemoglobin breakdown and jaundice, 237/;

eye glaucoma, 7996 retinal detachment, 8016 female reproductive system Pap smear, 7576 placenta at birth, 7556 polycystic ovarian disease, 7356 immune system, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 367/;

integumentary system skin repair, 421 sweating and disease, 4196 kidneys hormonal regulation of duct function, 6226

hypertension and renin-angiotensin-

aldosterone system, 616/; urinalysis, 6146 liver, lipoproteins, 5456 male reproductive system erection and erectile dysfunction, 712/;

factors affecting spermatogenesis, 694/;

sperm-specific antigens and immune response, 7006 muscle innervation: myasthenia gravis,

2596 nervous system demyelinating diseases, 2976 Parkinson's disease, 292/; respiratory system emphysema and pneumonia, 5886 metaplasia, 5756 stomach pernicious anemia and peptic ulcer disease, 4876 Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma), 4906 teeth, dental caries, 4536 tissues, ovarian teratoma, 82, 83 Clitoris, 758

Cloquet's (hyaloid) canal, 808 Closing cone, 198, 199 Closure, epiphyseal, 195, 197 Cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules.

See CD entries Coagulation factors, of endothelial lining, 331

Cochlea, 825-826, 826 Cochlear labyrinth, 826-827, 827, 828 Cognate antibodies, 145 Collagen type I, 132, 170 type II, 132, 165 type III, 107, 109 type IV, 108, 132

type VII (anchoring fibrils), 106, 107, 110, 111 type IX, 132 type XI, 165 types of, table, 505 Collagen fibers, 131, 133?

of elastic arteries, 333 Collagen fibrils, 131, 131-134, 132, 132?, 133?

Collagen molecule (tropocollagen), 132, 164-165, 165 cartilage-specific, 165 Collagen synthesis, 132, 135, 136 Collagen table, 505 Collagenase, 223 type IV, 221

Collagenopathies, table of the most common, 136/, 136b

Collar bony, 194, 195

inner of Schwann cell, 295, 296 of perinuclear cytoplasm, 295, 296 Colloid, resorption by thyroid gland, 658 Colloid osmotic pressure, 215 Colloidal resorption droplets, 658 Colon, 526-527p. See also Large intestine human epithelium, 122/; intestinal glands of, 105 Colony-forming units (CFU), 233. See also

CFU entries Colony-stimulating factors (CSF), 237,

238-239, 239/ Colorectal zone, 508 Colostrum, 761

Columnar absorptive cells, 504, 505 Columns anal, 507

renal (columns of Bertin), 605, 605-606 Communicating (gap) junctions. See Gap junctions

Compact bone, 184, 184, 206-207p Complement activators, 221 Complex, Sertoli cell junctional, 689,

698-701 Compound glands, 112, 113/ Conchae, nasal (turbinates), 570, 570 Conduction, saltatory (discontinuous), 300,

302-303 Conductive hearing loss, 832b Cone(s) closing, 198, 199 retinal, 800, 801-805, 803 Confocal scanning microscope, 13, 13 Congenital hypothyroidism, 659 Coni vasculosi, 686, 702 Conjugation, of drugs and toxins, 534 Conjunctiva(e), 808

Connective tissue, 78, 80, 80, 126-155. See also Collagen entries blood as, 214

146, 147, 148 of central nervous system (CNS), 306,

311-312,312 classification, 126-127, 127i clinical correlation: collagenopathies, 1366 dense, 150-151/?

dense irregular, 129, 129-131, 130, 131,

150-151 p, 152-153/; dense regular, 152-153/; elastic, 127»

embryonic, 128, 128. See also Ectomes-

enchyme; Mesenchyme extracellular matrix, 139-141 fibers and fibrils, 131, 131-139, 132,

1331, 139, 140, 154-155/; general structure and function, 126-127 ground substance, 139, 140 hepatic, 536

mononuclear phagocytotic system, 1446 mucous, 128, 128 muscle-associated, 248 neutrophils in, 222 of peripheral nerves, 304-306, 305 reticular, 127» Connective tissue capsules, of sensory neurons, 306 Connexins, 102, 103

Continuous capillaries, 338, 339 Contraction cycle of skeletal muscle, 254-257, 254-257,

259, 259 of smooth muscle, 268, 268-269 Cooper's (suspensory) ligaments, 759 Cords false vocal (ventricular folds), 573-574, 576

vocal (vocal folds), 573, 574 Cornea, 789, 789, 790, 790

layers of, 792, 793 Corneal stroma (substantia propria), 793,

793-794, 794 Corneoscleral coat (layer), of eye, 789, 790, 791, 792-796, 793, 794, 795, 818-819p Corneoscleral limbus, 792 Corpora arenacea (brain sand), 653-654, 654

Corpora cavernosa, 710, 711 Corpora lutea atretica, 740 Corpus hemorrhagicum, 736, 737 Corpus luteum, 736-737, 737, 746,

768-769/;. See also Menstrual cycle hormonal secretions, 746-748 of menstruation, 737 of pregnancy, 739 Corpus spongiosum, 710, 711 Corpuscles Hassall's (thymic), 380-381, 381 Malpighian (splenic nodules), 384 Meissner's, 411-414, 412, 758 Merkel's, 411 Pacinian, 411, 412, 758 Ruffini's, 411, 412, 414 thymic (Hassall's), 380-381 , 381 Cortex fetal, 668 of hair, 413, 414 of lymph node deep, 378 nodular, 375-376 thymus-dependent, 376 permanent adrenal, 668 renal, 604, 604-605 Corti, organ of, 820, 829-831, 832,

840-841p Cortical granules, 731 Corticotropes (ACTH cells), 649, 649/ Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH),

653/ Cortilymph, 831 Cortisol, 666

Countercurrent exchange system, 623-624, 624

Countercurrent multiplier effect, 623 Cranial nerves optic (11), 789, 805 supplying taste buds, 439-440 trigeminal (V), 572 vagus (X), 479-480 vestibulocochlear (VIII), 286, 835, 836 "Crew-cut" appearance, of cilia, 92, 92 Cristae ampullaris, 826, 826, 827-828, 828 Crossing-over, 69, 692 Cryptorchidism, 685 Crypts, intestinal, 116 Crystalline lens, 807, 807-808, 818-819/; Crystalloid bodies, 223 Crystalloid inclusions, 244 Crystals hydroxyapatite, 180, 204-205/; of Reinke, 68S, 689, 740

Cuboida! epithelium, defined, 88, 89/ Cuboidal hepatocytes, 544, 544 Cumulus oophorus, 733, 733 Cup, optic, 791, 791-792 Cupula, of inner ear, 827-828, 828 Cuticle of hair follicle, 413 of hair shaft, 413, 414 of nail (eponychium), 421 Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 642

Cystatin, 406, 406 Cystic fibrosis, 582/; Cysts, Nabothian, 750 Cytochrome c, 73

See also Interleukins Cytokinesis, 69 Cytometry flow, 8b static, 8b Cytoplasm, 18-20 inclusions, 20

organelles, 19-60, 76-77/. See also Organelles

Cytoplasmic densities (dense bodies),

266-267, 267 Cytoplasmic matrix, 60 Cytoplasmic rings, 66, 66 Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, 228,365-366,367 Cytotrophoblast, 749

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