MS-associated agent Measles virus Mumps virus Papovavirus Parainfluenza virus Rabies virus Retrovirus Rubella Scrapie agent Simian virus SMON-like virus

Abbreviations: CDV, canine distemper virus; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HHV, human herpes virus; HTLV, human T-cell leukemia/ lymphoma virus; SMON, subacute myelo-optic neuropathy. Source: Modified from Ref. 1.

tissue concentrations of the pathogen, or conceptual barriers, including the failure to recognize that the disease could be due to an uncommon complication of a common microbe or because of a long latent period between infection and disease expression. Clearly, the same issues need to be considered in MS.

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