In this final section, three topics in treating Asian American clients are highlighted: (a) techniques for establishing credibility, (b) importance of maintaining flexibility with respect to the parameters of treatment as well as therapeutic approaches, and (c) availability of case studies that illustrate how to translate broad cultural concepts into cultural formulations of individual cases. These are necessarily broad descriptions that only introduce the reader to potential cultural issues in treatment with Asian Americans. The clinician faced with actual Asian American client cases should consult more specific resources. For example, the volume edited by E. Lee (1997) contains chapters on working with Asian Americans at different stages of the life cycle (children, adolescents, young adults, elderly), with various DSM-IV diagnoses (schizophrenia, major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], substance abuse, anxiety disorders), using various treatment approaches (psychoanalytic, group, psycho-pharmacological, case management, and testing), and other specific topics (gay and lesbian issues, women's issues, intermarriages, domestic violence, spiritual issues, mental health systems, and use of translators). In addition, consultation with cultural informants or professionals with expertise in the specific Asian American group is highly encouraged.

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