Overview Theory Models and Demographics

1 Culture and Mental Health: An Introduction and Overview of Foundations, Concepts, and Issues

Anthony J. Marsella ami Ann Marie Yanuula

I. Introduction 3

A. Overview of Foundations 3

B. The "New* Culture and Mental Health 5

C. The Neo-Kraepelinian Movement 6

D. Postmodern Views 7

E. Individualism and Scientlsm 8

F. American Psychological Association Guidelines 9

G. The Maturation of the Field 9

II. Overview of Culture and Mental Health Questions, Concepts, and Issues 11

A. Some Defining Questions 11

B. Some Important Concepts 12

C. Cultures as Causative of Psychiatric Disorders 13

D. Important Issues 17

E. Ethnocultural Diversity 21 References 22

2 Cultural Models of Health and Illness

Ronald J. Angel and Kristi Williams

I. Culture and Meaning 27

II. Social Differentiation and Culture 29

UK Objectivity and Subjectivity 29

IV. The Role of Culture in Health and Illness 30

V. Schemata and Cognitive Processes 32 VI. Psyche and Soma: The Mincl-Body Distinction in Western Mcdicinc 33

VII. Culture, Emotion, and Health 34

A. A Conceptual Model 35

B. Somatization: An Example 3d

VIII. Cultural versus Psychological Determinism 38 IX. A New Cultural Public Health 39

References 41

3 Acculturation and Mental Health: Ecological Transactional Relations of Adjustment

Israel CutUai

I. Introduction 45

II. Culture Defined 47

III. Acculturation Defined 47

IV. Acculturation Processes 48 V. Culture and Mental Health 48

VI. Modes of Acculturation 50

VII. Culture Conflict 52 VIII. Accuhurative Stress 52

IX. Acculturation and Psychological Adjustment 54

X. Acculturation and Clinical Manifestations of Illness 55

XI. Empirical Findings of Acculturation and Mental Health 56

XII. Ecological Interventions in Mental Health 58 References 60

4 Gender as Subculture: The hirst Division of Multicultural Diversity

Genevieve Canutes

I. Key Terms and Definitions 64 II. Types of Gender-Role Conflict among Racial and Ethnic

Minority Groups 65

A. Gender-Role Conflict Related to Pcrceivcd Expcciattons of the

Majority Culture's Gender-Role Norms 65

B. Gender-Role Conflict Related to Differences between the Majority Culture and Racial and Ethnic Minorities In Their Conceptions of Femininity and Masculinity 66

C. Gender-Role Conllict Related to Individual Differences 68

D. Gender-Role Conflict Related to Gender-Role Norms of a

Particular Racial and Ethnic Minority Group 71

HI. Implications of Gender-Role Conflict for Assessment and Treatment of Mental Health and Adjustment Issues A African Americans B. American Indians C Asian Americans D Latinas and Latinos

E. Assessment and Treatment Issues Common to All Racial and

Ethnic Minority Groups 75

IV. Summary and Conclusions 75


5 Multicultural Demographic Developments: Current and

Future Trends

Uzzcr A. Raajpoot

I. Introduction 79

II. Hispanic Americans 82 HI. American Indians 85

IV. African Americans 87

V. Asian Americans 90 VI. Conclusions 92

References 93

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