Examined the effects of demographic variables, including ethnicity and presence of mental illness on the variance of MMPI-2 scale scores. The demographic variables contribute little incremental variance for the validity and clinical scales. No comparisons were made by ethnicity and race, and no exact numbers are given by ethnicity.
No differences were found between the three groups. Please note the small sample size of Latinos.
African Americans were elevated on the Pd and Ma scales when compared to Whites and Latinos. African Americans were twice as likely to be disqualified for hire.
"L, Latino; W, White; AA, African American; NA, Native American; Non-W, non-White. bL, Lie; Pa, Paranoia; Pt, Psyasthenia; Si, Social Introversion; ARSMA, Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans; Hs, Hypochondriasis; D, Depression; Sc, Schizophrenia; Mf, Masculinity-femininity; K, Defensiveness; Hy, Hypochondriasis; Pd, Psychopathic Deviate; MA, mania; F, In-frequency; CYN, Cynician; FRS, fears; ASP, Antisocial Practices.
Fantoni-Salvador and Rogers (1997) found that Puerto Rican psychiatric patients obtained higher scores on the psychotic- and anxiety-related scales when compared to Mexican American counterparts (as well as other Latino subgroups). Pace, Choney, Blair, Hill, and Lacey compared two different groups of American Indian tribes from Oklahoma, the Plains and Eastern Woodlands Indians, and found that these two groups differed on scales L and Infrequency (F), with the Plains obtaining higher scores. The Plains were also found to have higher scores on the F, Hypochondriasis (Hy), Paranoia (Pa), Schizophrenia (Sc), and Mania (Ma) scales when contrasted to the small American Indian sample from the MMPI-2 norms. Incidentally, this norm sample was primarily from a tribe in the state of Washington. In both of these studies, the respective authors concluded that variations in subculture, attitudes, and lifestyle most likely accounted for these differences.
These findings, while clearly limited, indicate that psychologists must always be sensitive to variations that may be present within particular ethnic groups. For example, the concepts of ethnic identity or acculturation may vary tremendously with respect to Puerto Ricans who reside in the United States versus those who reside in Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricans who live in this country may be more apt to feel like a "minority" than those who live on the island. Thus, those who reside on the mainland may be more sensitive to issues of discrimination, prejudice, or racism than those who live in Puerto Rico (see Table III).
Researchers have examined the role of acculturation on the MMPI-2 performance of ethnic minority groups, with an emphasis on non-Puerto Rican or non-Cuban Latinos. Although findings on the effects of acculturation remain equivocal, it does appear that acculturation can impact MMPI-2 performance. Canul (1993), for example, found that Mexican Americans who were pro-White and anti-Mexican in their orientations tended to score higher on the L scale, whereas those with a positive view toward their own group and a negative view toward the White majority were more likely to obtain lower K (defensiveness) or defensiveness scores. Quintana (1997) and Lessenger (1997), using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (ARSMA-II; Cuellar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1994) found no relationship between acculturation and the MMPI-2 scales. Pace et al. (1997) found that Americans Indians who were more traditional were more likely to score higher on the F and Sc scales, whereas those who were less traditional were more likely to score higher on the K scale. Our research and clinical experiences have led us to consider a new scale, the Ac-culturative Stress Index (ASI), which is derived from the MMPI-2 item pool, and which may help clarify the role of acculturation through the lenses of stress and coping. For these reasons, researchers are employing measures like the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI) developed by Cervantes and colleagues (Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991), to better understand the impact of stress during the acculturation process.
Research has examined the equivalence of linguistic translations to the English version of the MMPI-2. Again, the majority of research has focused on Latinos, with one investigation of Iranian Americans. The results of these investigations suggest high linguistic equivalence of the Spanish and Farsi translations to the English-language MMPI-2, and the potential for use with monolingual and bilingual Latinos and Iranians in the United States. Cabiya (1994), in his study, reported on the adaptation of the Chilean version for use in Puerto Rico. Although 22 items had to be modified for the new adaptation, the overall results indicated strong equivalence. Karle (1994) and Velasquez, Chavira, Karle, Callahan, and
TABLE III Intracultural Comparisons on the MMPI-2: Key Findings
Anderson et al. 15
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