Conclusion

In the introductory section of this chapter we agreed with Pedersen's observation that multiculturalism is the fourth force in psychology. Throughout the chapter, we have attempted to show the positive contributions of multiculturalism in psychotherapy. We began with a review of early considerations of cultural differences in traditional or mainstream psychotherapy. We also highlighted the importance of multicultural counseling and supervision competencies, as well as a metatheoretical framework, to guide the development and ensure the success of multiculturalism in psychotherapy. In our review of multicultural psychotherapy models, we classified most into one of four major approaches—culture matching, acculturation and adaptation, ethnic and racial identity, and person-environment—and detailed the significance of each approach. Perhaps most striking, we have tried to show that multicultural psychology is a revolutionary force that has the potential to create broad changes in the social sciences and mental health because of its emphases on inclusion, synthesis, and synergy. The future of multicultural psychotherapy, in our view, rests upon the success of the multicultural therapist and client to be co-intentional social engineers of the future, to be active participants in the lives of culturally different people who are striving to live effectively and efficiently in a pluralistic society. To achieve this goal, we conclude with the need for scholars and practitioners to actively engage in research that will validate this multicultural way of life.

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