The four domains described by the International Test Commission include (a) Context; (b) Development; (c) Administration; and (d) Documentation/Score Interpretation (International Test Commission, 1993, as reported in Van de Vijver & Hambleton, 1996). Context-domain variables are defined as utilizing test translation methods that minimize or avoid construct bias, method bias, and item bias. Development of a cross-cultural instrument requires an in-depth understanding and knowledge of both the target language and target culture and a translated product that ensures that both are reflected in all aspects of the test. With regard to administration, the item content, stimulus materials, test administration format, and techniques must be familiar to the targeted cultural group. Statistical documentation of the ecological validity of the test is of critical importance in assuring that test results have the potential for accurate score interpretation (Van de Vijver & Hambleton, 1996). Ecological validation involves the ability to observe tested behavior in naturalistic, everyday settings. Sbordone (1996) further defined ecological validity for neuropsychological testing as "the functional and predictive relationship between the patient's performance on a set of neuropsychological tests and the patient's behavior in a variety of real-world settings (e.g., at home, work, school, community)" (p. 16). A measure would demonstrate ecological validity if test results provide correct inferences, or predictions, about an individual's ability to perform a specific task in the home, work, or social settings. Following the guidelines established by this international commission would increase confidence that equivalent and valid test translations have been conducted.
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