Symptoms resembling panic attacks are common in cultures where members have strong beliefs in witchcraft or evil spirit attacks (Castillo, 1997; Kirmayer, Young, & Hayton, 1995). For example, trembling or shaking, chest pain, fear of dying, palpitations, and other symptoms for Panic Disorder are generally reported by Hispanics with intensive fears of malign magic, malevolent attacks by witchcraft, or evil spirit attacks. These symptoms resemble the culture-bound syndrome named "ataques de nervios" among Hispanics (DSM-IV, 1994; Kirmayer et al., 1995; see Table I). The DSM-IV (1994), however, pointed out that the "association of most ataques with a precipitating event and the frequent absence of the hallmark symptoms of acute fear or apprehensions distinguish [these ataques] from Panic Disorder" (p. 845). Another culture-bound syndrome resembling Panic Disorder is "Ode-ori" (Table I), which is often reported among the Nigerian culture and is characterized by sensations of parasites crawling in the head and feelings of heat in the head. Kimayer et al. (1995) recommended that these culture-specific symptoms should not be considered as "indicative of psychopathology" (p. 509). Furthermore, the DSM-IV pointed out that the participation of women in public life is sometimes restricted in some ethnic and cultural groups (e.g., Arabic countries), and this situation should be separated from Agoraphobia (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 399).
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Tips And Tricks For Relieving Anxiety... Fast Everyone feels anxious sometimes. Whether work is getting to us or we're simply having hard time managing all that we have to do, we can feel overwhelmed and worried that we might not be able to manage it all. When these feelings hit, we don't have to suffer. By taking some simple steps, you can begin to create a calmer attitude, one that not only helps you feel better, but one that allows you the chance to make better decisions about what you need to do next.