Trend

Unlike research with the MMPI, there appears to be a stronger emphasis on intracultural variation with the MMPI-2. That is, there is now a growing interest in the diversity that exists within ethnic and racial groups on such variables as gender, geographic location, and cultural subgroups (e.g., tribes). For example,

TABLE II Cross-Cultural Comparisons on the MMPI-2

Author(s)

Participants"

Key findings'

Latinos

Callahan (1997)

Callahan et al. (1995) Cook (1996)

Haskell (1996) Hernandez(1994)

Whitworth & McBlaine 173 L

Whitworth & Unterbrink 200 L

African Americans

Ben-Porath et al. (1996) 121 AA 551 W

88 L Mexican Americans obtained higher scores on the

62 W L and Pa scales, whereas Whites obtained higher scores on the Pt, Sc, and Si scales. It is important to note that this study included three types of samples: psychiatric patients, college students, and community subjects. This study also considered acculturation using the ARSMA.

20 L No differences were found between Mexican Ameri-

20 W can and White college students.

90 L Compared Latino and White mental health outpa-

90 W tients on item-response rates. Similar biased items were found for both ethnic groups, which were minimal. This is the first study to examine item-endorsement rates for Latinos.

Latino child abusers obtained higher scores on the L, Hs, D, Sc, and Si scales in comparison to White counterparts. The majority of the Latino sample was Puerto Rican and Central American.

57 L Mexican Americans obtained higher scores on the L,

58 L Compared Mexican American and White college 124 W students, Mexican American males obtained higher scores on the L scale, and White males had higher scores on the Mf, Pt, and Si scales.

Mexican Americans obtained higher scores on 110 W L scale, whereas Whites obtained higher scores on the K, Hy, Pd, and Mf scales.

Mexican Americans obtained higher scores on the L, 200 W F, D, Pd, Sc, and Ma scales, whereas Whites obtained a high score on K.

African American males obtained higher scores on the L scale, females on the Pt, and all on the Ma scale compared to Whites.

No differences were found between Whites and African Americans.

88 AA African Americans obtained higher scores on the Pa

118 W and Sc scales.

173 AA African Americans obtained higher scores on L, F, K, 247 W Pa, Pt, and Si scales, whereas Whites obtained a higher score on the Mf scale.

TABLE II (continued)

Author(s)

Participants"

Key findings'"

African Americans (continued)

Lopez (1997) 58 AA

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