Preface

During the last half of the 20th century, researchers placed a great deal of importance on brain-behavior relations. Much knowledge and control were undeniably gained from such efforts, but unfortunately culture, the true roots of much of our behavior, was largely overlooked. This general disregard of cultural factors not only led to false generalizations but blocked understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions (Horney, 1937). The aspiration...

References

W., & Levin, M.J. (1993). Asian and Pacific Is landers in the U.S. New York Russell Sage Foundation. Cuellar, I. (1999, April). Border health care overview. Paper presented as part of the First International Border Health Conference, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, Texas. Eschbach, K. (1995). The enduring and vanishing American Indian American Indian population growth and intermarriage in 1990. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18, 89-108. Eschbach, K.,...

Specific Multicultural Curriculum And Training Issues

Having examined the strategy for addressing general cultural characteristics and specific group differences, we will now consider particular issues relating to curriculum and training cultural proficiency. Although this discussion is focused more on preservice training in university programs, many of the issues discussed here are also applicable to in-service training or professional development of clinicians who are practicing in the field. Cultural proficiency is a continuum rather than a...

Integration Of Practice Knowledge And Practice Skills

The last prerequisite for profesional competence in multicultural mental health is that each provider of service integrate research-based knowledge with knowledge gained from practice. Whether interventions are directed toward individuals, groups, or institutions, scientific practices dictate a feedback loop in which practice knowledge is evaluated to modify existing practices where deemed necessary and to modify theory, as well as research, when required. At the individual level this means...

Types Of Genderrole Conflict Among Racial And Ethnic Minority Groups

Wade (1996) identified three possible types of gender-role conflict in African-American men. The first type of conflict surrounds attempts to meet the expectations of the majority culture's traditional feminine and masculine gender-role norms. The second type of conflict stems from differences between the majority culture and racial ethnic minority groups in their conceptions of femininity and masculinity. The third type of conflict arises when the individual's acculturation, ethnic identity,...

Introduction

This chapter provides an ecological perspective to the role of culture and behavior. A multilevel systems perspective is applied consistent with Bronfen-brenner's Ecological Systems Theory (1989). It is essential to eliminate from the mind the notion that culture is a singular variable. A big perspective is required to understand culture in its entirety (C. Cheney, personal communication, June, 1973). This chapter aims to maintain that perspective in understanding psychological adjustment,...

Cultural Values

As mentioned previously, it is difficult to generalize about American Indians and Alaska Natives given the significant between-group as well as within-group differences. Yet, many clinicians are unfamiliar with the Indian and Native population and how their cultural values might differ from other groups. Some possible cultural differences for clinicians to consider are thus presented, but should not be taken as true about all Indians or Natives. Generally speaking, Indian and Native cultures...

Person Environment

The culture-matching, acculturation and adaptation, and racial identity approaches to multicultural psychotherapy remind us that people live in the context of culture. These approaches consequently focus on specific cultural experiences, including validating different worldviews, assisting in cultural transitions, and facilitating racial identity development. The person-environment approach goes a step further by acknowledging that people live in a cultural context and, more importantly, by...

Culture and Methodology in Personality Assessment

Regional Research Institute Portland State University Portland, Oregon Cross-cultural and multicultural psychology both examine group differences, although multicultural psychology refers to domestic or within-country differences rather than between-country differences (Goodstein & Gielen, 1998). Moreover, cross-cultural psychology explicitly seeks general laws of human behavior and is etic or universal in focus on, for example, belief systems and social relationships. Methodology has always...

Reading Case Studies

Some recent additions to the clinical literature on treating Asian Americans feature more detailed descriptions of the psychotherapy sessions than those that were previously available. These extended case examples provide more holistic pictures of various Asian American client cases in contrast to briefer case examples that can only illustrate a limited number of cultural-clinical phenomenology or cultural intervention. For example, Jung's (1998) text presents case studies of six different...

Case Vignette

Carlos is a 35-year-old Mexican American gay man with AIDS whose relationships to his parents were ambivalent and problematic and who, starting in adolescence, led a life of substance abuse, street existence, abusive dependent relationships where he was the wife, and menial if any employment. As his disease became unmistakably manifest, he sank into a profound, hopeless depression. While in this state and perhaps affected by the concomitant use of prescribed opioids he had a life-transforming...

An Understanding Of The Relations Of Culture And Mental Health

The research findings reported in this handbook indicate that there is a growing body of knowledge of cultural influences on mental health. Methodological problems have been plentiful and most challenging. Methodological advances are an integral part of the growing body of research on culture. Just as each ore has its own means of extraction, each cultural group requires its own emic-specific tools, measures, and indices if investigators are to fully understand that culture. Methodology is seen...

Psychiatric History and Database

During the greater part of the clinicial interview one has to move back and forth between approaches allowing the patient to speak his or her mind and letting the interview go wherever it may or exerting more direction to elicit specific details, symptoms, and issues, and guiding the interview into other areas. The degree and type of directiveness is determined by the purpose of the interview and other factors. In this section I will focus on three areas of culturally influenced...

Culturally Approved Illness Manifestation

Once we know to what extent individuals adhere to the Latino culture or the U.S. culture, it is important to understand how to culturally tailor further diagnosis and treatment. It would be inappropriate to use Latino culture-specific methods of diagnosis or treatment if the individual is highly assimilated, just as it would be inappropriate to ignore culture-specific methods if the individual is less acculutrated. Culture has been purported to have influences on the perception and definition...

An Integrated Etic Emic Approach

Actually, the etic and emic approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, especially from an applied perspective. One can combine the most practical elements of each approach to formulate a training model that includes general, universal techniques as well as specific skills relevant to specific cultural groups that the particular mental health professionals are likely to encounter. This integrated approach includes skills for communicating across cultures and efforts to sensitize...

Borderline Histrionic and Narcissistic Personality Disorders

In the case of Borderline Personality Disorder, the DSM-IV suggests that this disorder might not represent a culture-specific disorder because behaviors associated with it have been seen in many cultures around the world (DSM-IV, 1994, p. 652). In the case of the second disorder (Histrionic), norms for personal appearance, emotional expressiveness, and interpersonal behavior vary widely across cultures. Symptoms associated with this disorder (e.g., emotionality, seductiveness,...

Limitations of Etic and Emic Approaches

As most mental health professionals experienced in working with ethnic minorities would know, methods based on the extreme position that the Western mainstream model of psychotherapy is universal are simply too general to be practical. In addition, when translated into practice, the etic approach runs the risk of underestimating the overarching effect cultural frameworks have on every aspect of mental health services (Hong & Ham, 1994). These include conceptualization of mental health and...

Modes Of Acculturation

According to Acculturation Theory (Redfield et al., 1936), people change in at least three basic ways acceptance, adaptation, and reaction 1. Acceptance is where the process of acculturation results in the replacement of the older cultural elements with new cultural customs. The end result of Acceptance is not just the assimilation of new behavior patterns but the inner values of the new culture. 2. Adaptation is when both original and foreign traits are combined so as to produce a harmonious...

Three Domains of Multicultural Competence

The second useful paradigm for cultural competence is presented by a number of authors in the field of multicultural counseling and psychotherapy (Arredondo et al., 1996 Pedersen, 1988 Sue, Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992 Sue et al., 1982), often referred to as Pedersen's Model of Training. This approach identifies three domains in cultural competence awareness, knowledge, and skills. These three domains or dimensions can be conceptualized as developmental levels with trainees progressing from...

Cultural Expressions

Asian American mental health research has made strides in dispelling myths that Asian Americans as a population have little or no mental health problems (Uba, 1994). The findings that Asian Americans tend to underutilize outpatient (S. Sue, Fujino, Hu, Takeuchi, & Zane, 1991) and inpatient psychiatric services (Snowden & Cheung, 1990) are no longer interpreted as the Asian Americans' lack of need for such services but as a reflection of various cultural and institutional barriers to Asian...

Xischizophrenia And Other Psychotic Disorders

Delusional ideas (e.g., witchcraft) and auditory hallucinations (e.g., seeing the Virgin Mary or hearing God's voice) may be abnormal in one culture and normal in other cultures (Castillo, 1997). For example, in the Nigerian culture, paranoid fears of evil attacks by spirits are part of the local beliefs involving fears of malevolent attacks by evil spirits (Kirmayer et al., 1995). These fears are examples of the culture-bound syndrome named Ode-ori in Table I. As noted by Kirmayer et al....

Anxiety Disorders A Panic Disorder

Symptoms resembling panic attacks are common in cultures where members have strong beliefs in witchcraft or evil spirit attacks (Castillo, 1997 Kirmayer, Young, & Hayton, 1995). For example, trembling or shaking, chest pain, fear of dying, palpitations, and other symptoms for Panic Disorder are generally reported by Hispanics with intensive fears of malign magic, malevolent attacks by witchcraft, or evil spirit attacks. These symptoms resemble the culture-bound syndrome named ataques de...

Culture Bound Syndromes Cultural Variations and Psychopathology

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, Texas Inaccuracies in the assessment and diagnosis of psychopathological conditions with culturally diverse groups (i.e., overdiagnosis, underdiagnosis, and misdiagnosis) might result from a lack of understanding of the presence of cultural variants leading to symptoms resembling psychopathology. These variables have generally been described in the case of culture-specific disorders known as...

Presenting Problem

Language issues aside there are other basic steps that are important in initiating all clinical interviews but are of greater importance in the early cross-cultural interview. One of these is deterimining why is the patient here There are usually several components to this question with all patients What is the reason this person gives for seeking help now, and more importantly, what is the real reason help is being sought As reasonably good clinicians we know that there are often unspoken or...

Neuropsychological Assessment of Ethnic Minorities Clinical Issues

University of North Carolina at Wilmington Department of Psychology Universidad de Granada Granada, Spain The psychology of individual differences underscores the importance of understanding the unique qualities of the person. Of particular importance is the issue of understanding the role of culture in the assessment of psychological abilities and disabilities. Indeed, the third article ever published in English on psychological assessment (Willey & Herskovits, 1927) was entitled Psychology...

Partner Relational Problem

Cultural variables such as differences in the level of acculturation and the role of machismo and marianismo among Hispanic clients could lead to partner relational problems (Paniagua, 1998). For example, a Hispanic female may experience negative communication with her husband regarding their expectations regarding the role the wife should play at home if she does not share the values of machismo and marianismo. Similarly, an acculturated individual (e.g., someone who shares most values,...

Assessing and Treating American Indians and Alaska Natives

Apache Behavioral Health Services Whiteriver, Arizona and Alaska Native Mental Health Research University of Colorado Health Sciences Center This chapter begins with a discussion of general factors that might impact the assessment and treatment of American Indians and Alaska Natives.1 The history of American Indians and Alaska Natives is briefly summarized and followed by a description of the unique demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics of the population. Some common cultural...

African Americans

African Americans have largely been identified as the descendants of slaves brought to the Americas during the centuries prior to the Civil War, with their ultimate emancipation, but ongoing degrees of discrimination through the present era. Other groups with origins in Black Africa have continued to arrive, but in smaller numbers and with frequent identification by nation of origin to identify their differing histories and economic circumstances. Most studies in the United States have focused...

Credibility and the Therapeutic Dyad

In a reformulation of techniques for working with ethnic minority clients, S. Sue and Zane 1987 identified credibility as a process that is central in the beginning stages of treatment for minority clients. In their analysis of credibility, S. Sue and Zane distinguished between credibility that is ascribed and credibility that is achieved. Ascribed credibility derives from the position or role that is assigned by others in society. In Asian cultures, characteristics that often go with higher...

The Etic versus Emic Debate

Until recently, most training institutions prepared mental health professionals to apply universal methods of assessment, therapy and counseling to clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. Theories of personality development have been thought to be universal in nature, and therefore therapeutic approaches stemming from such theories should have wide applications. Generally, this is known as the etic approach to multicultural psychotherapy and counseling Fukuyama, 1990 . The etic approach does...

Racism And Prejudice Are Unique Characteristics Of White Therapists

Some multicultural authors e.g., Corvin amp Wiggins, 1989 Sue, 1993 demand openly that White therapists acknowledge and resolve their ethnic prejudices in order to better serve non-White clients, yet minority therapists are left unchallenged to confront their prejudices prejudices that equally can jeopardize the quality of services they provide to White clients and to dissimilar minority clients. Ethnic prejudice exists throughout the world as evidenced by the number of ethnic and tribal...

Multicultural Techniques and Interventions

As this review of multicultural psychotherapy has shown, most approaches rely upon an assortment of techniques and interventions drawn from different theoretical orientations when working with culturally different clients. This eclectic practice has made it more difficult to validate empirically any given multicultural psychotherapy model. Furthermore, research on the value and effectiveness of universal and culture-specific therapeutic strategies is limited and mixed at best. Atkinson and...

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories

The MMPI was developed to measure psychopathology constructs as defined in the United States using the psychometric technology available during the 1930s Helmes amp Redden, 1993 . The nature and specific definitions of these constructs have changed several times over a 60-year period Castillo, 1996 . As a consequence, MMPI interpretation soon relied on established empirical correlates that made the original diagnostic system and Caucasian normative sample far less relevant to the clinical...

What Defines A Culturally Competent Approach With The Mmpi2

In recent years, psychologists like Dana 1995 have strongly advocated for the culturally competent use of the MMPI-2 with ethnic minority individuals. Dana has argued that the MMPI-2 is so widely used by psychologists to assess individuals from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds that some standards, guidelines, or recommendations are needed in order to ensure that the MMPI-2 is not misapplied to these groups. Although we agree with Dana in principle, we disagree with his approach,...

Empirical Findings Of Acculturation And Mental Health

The relations of acculturation and mental health have been studied empirically using reliable and valid indices of acculturation and mental health. These studies have increased in number, complexity, and sophistication as a result of the development of improved acculturation measures Cu llar, 1999 . Two major reviews of acculturation and mental health are Berry and Kim 1988 and Rogler, Cortes, and Malgady 1991 . Both reviews found the relationship between acculturation and mental health to be...

The Role Of Culture In Health And Illness

Interest in the role of culture in defining health and illness and help-seeking behavior continues to grow because of the framing function that culture serves .in forming the backdrop against which all aspects of our lives are interpreted and from which our actions take meaning. Numerous general overviews and critiques of contemporary medical anthropology provide useful insights into the state of both theory and practice in the study of culture and physical and mental health e.g., Good, 1993...

Impact of Cultural Values

Cultural values effect the assessment and treatment process in terms of clinical judgments about normalcy. Erroneous judgments can lead to misunderstanding, overpathologization, or implementation of a treatment plan that is not culturally consistent. In addition, clinicians who lack understanding of these differences might unknowingly act in a manner that jeopardizes rapport and trust. Misunderstandings within the therapeutic relationship not only occur because of the language-related issues...

L 43 Aa 48 W

Examined the effects of demographic variables, including ethnicity and presence of mental illness on the variance of MMPI-2 scale scores. The demographic variables contribute little incremental variance for the validity and clinical scales. No comparisons were made by ethnicity and race, and no exact numbers are given by ethnicity. No differences were found between the three groups. Please note the small sample size of Latinos. African Americans were elevated on the Pd and Ma scales when...

Chapter

Culture and Mental Health An Introduction and Overview of Foundations, Concepts, and Issues Anthony J. Marsella Ann Marie Yamada Department of Psychology University of Hawai'i Honolulu, Hawai'i I. INTRODUCTION A. Overview of Foundations 1. Emil Kraepelin Comparative Psychiatry In the early years of the twentieth century, Emil Kraepelin 1904 , the father of modern Western psychiatry, journeyed from his home in Germany to Asia and North America as part of a worldwide lecture tour. During the...

Xiisexual Dysfunctions And Paraphilias

In the case of Sexual Dysfunctions, the ethnic and religious background of the individual, as well as whether the client's culture emphasizes male dominance and control on female sexuality versus those that reward the opposite view should be considered during the assessment of Sexual Dysfunctions. These cultural variations may affect sexual desire, expectations, and attitudes about performance. In some societies, a female sexual desire is not considered very relevant particularly when fertility...

Parent Child Relational Problem

Parent-child relational problems may include impaired communication, over-protection, and inadequate discipline DSM-IV, 1994, p. 681 . Acculturation problems may lead to parent-child relational problems in the form of impaired communication. For example, later generation Asian and Hispanic adolescents may disagree with their early generation parents in certain issues involving customs and lifestyles e.g., dressing, dating because parents are less acculturated than their children into the...

Linguistic Equivalence

In linguistic equivalence, the intent is to ensure that performance requests are identical across cultures, or where regional linguistic variations are observed Drasgow amp Hulin, 1987 Hulin, 1987 . Or, as Helms 1992 has suggested, is the language used in test items equalized such that it holds the same meaning in the cultural groups being examined In terms of methods to increase the likelihood of linguistic equivalence, several have been identified in the literature. Possibilities for test...

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Considerable cultural variations exist in the expression of anxiety. In some cultures, anxiety is expressed predominantly through somatic symptoms, in others through cognitive symptoms. The cultural context should be considered during the evaluation of worries about certain situations as excessive 1994, pp. 433-434 . This DSM-IV disorder may resemble the culture-bound syndrome termed Ode-ori Table I , which has been reported in Nigeria and includes excessive anxiety resulting from the sensation...