See belle indiffrence

Abnormally unstable, sudden, rapid shifts in affect.

Culture-bound syndrome (Malaysia) said to involve automatic obedience, echolalia, and echopraxia.

In psychoanalysis, unconscious meaning, especially relating to dreams.

Proposed animal model of depression (Seligman); subjects repeatedly exposed to adverse treatment adopt learning disability libido

Lilliputian hallucinations logorrhoea long-term memory loosening of associations magical thinking mania mania a potu manifest content masochism mental retardation middle insomnia withdrawn and apparently helpless presentation; relevance to human condition uncertain.

Below-average IQ (<70 or below), together with impaired social functioning.

Sex drive.

Objects seem reduced in size, but otherwise normal; said to be characteristic of delirium tremens.

Somewhat pretentious synonym for 'volubility' or 'loquacity'.

Includes both autobiographical (from childhood onward) and more recent memory, as for events in current affairs.

See derailment.

A term that expresses well some aspects of childhood thinking, but which seems imprecise as a component of the US diagnosis of 'schizotypal disorder', a condition, much less well recognized internationally.

Affective disorder with elevated mood, overactivity, and loss of insight.

A disputed entity, suggested as 'pathological intoxication' with alcohol, small amounts producing marked disinhibition and violence.

In psychoanalysis, the parts of a dream one remembers, as distinct from the 'latent content' said to be revealed in analysis.

Sexual variation consisting of pleasure derived from receiving pain.

See learning disability.

Waking in the night and then going back to sleep, but with difficulty.

mitgehen mitmachen mood mood-congruent negative symptoms neologism neuroleptic malignant syndrome neurosis night terrors nihilistic delusion nystagmus object relations obsession

Extreme form of mitmachen.

A phenomenon of catatonia in which the patient's body can be put by the examiner into any position in spite of the instruction that the patient resist.

The predominant, sustained emotional state of the subject: it is the emotional 'climate', as against the affect, which by extension is the emotional 'weather'.

All features of an illness in line with and apparently produced by the mood; for example, a person with severe psychotic depression may have the delusion that he is an evil murderer and does not deserve to live, but when his mood has improved, the delusion gradually disappears.

Characteristics of some patients with schizophrenia, including lack of initiative; reduced self-care; poverty of speech, emotion, and action; lack of interest in relationships; etc.

A nonsense word made up by a patient with severe psychosis, usually part of the disorder of the form of thought.

Hyperpyrexia, autonomic instability, and muscular rigidity, related to the use of neuroleptic (antipsychotic) medication.

Umbrella term for the common mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, etc.; it is distinct from psychotic disorder, as reality testing is intact.

See sleep terror disorder.

Belief that oneself or the world does not exist; seen in severe depression.

Involuntary repeated movements of the eyes.

In psychoanalysis, focus on the ability to have relationships.

Repetitive unpleasant thought known to be nonsensical by patients, but that they recognize as their own thought.

Oedipal stage olfactory hallucination oneiroid state operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning)

oral stage orientation overvalued idea panic attacks paranoid ideation parasomnia pareidolia

Effort to stop the thoughts is accompanied by an increase in anxiety. May be accompanied by compulsions.

In psychoanalysis, postulated stage of development between the ages of approximately 4 and 6 years when the personality develops and the relationship with the parents matures.

Involves a false taste perception; for example, patients with psychotic depression may smell their own flesh rotting.

Dreamlike state: the term is usually used in connection with epilepsy.

In behaviour theory, the results of the behaviour influence whether it will be repeated, reward promoting repetition, and lack of reward or punishment discouraging it.

In psychoanalysis, the postulated early stage of infant development, from birth to about 1 year when the baby is fixated on suckling.

See disorientation.

A belief, usually false, that is inappropriate in view of the person's culture and background, and that is partially maintained in the face of contrary evidence and arguments, but the intensity of the holding of the belief is less than that of a delusion.

Sudden severe attacks of anxiety that may be unexpected or produced by a known trigger, such as having to speak in public.

Ideas of persecution, etc., of less than delusional intensity.

Unusual behaviour during sleep, such as sleepwalking.

An inconsequential stimulus mistakenly seen as real (e.g. a face in the clouds); it is not necessarily abnormal, but is seen in a variety of mental disorders.

passivity phenomena persecutory delusion perseveration personality disorder phobia pressure of speech prodrome projection pseudocyesis pseudodementia pseudologia fantastica psychogenic fugue psychological pillow psychomotor retardation

Psychotic phenomena in which the patient believes his actions or mind is controlled by others, as in thought insertion and thought withdrawal.

Patients feel they are being conspired against, etc.

Inappropriate repetition of some behaviour, thought, or speech, even though the provoking stimulus, such as a question, has ceased. It is seen in organic disorders and schizophrenia.

Permanent maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaviour, present by adolescence or early adulthood, and continuing in spite of adverse experience.

Anxiety provoked by a specific object or situation, such as dogs. It may lead to avoidance of the provoking stimulus.

Usually a feature of mania; the speech is loud, speeded up, and hard to interrupt.

Premonitory sign or symptom of a developing disorder.

In psychoanalysis, unconscious defence mechanism in which the difficulties in the self are projected onto others.

Phantom pregnancy.

A severe mental illness, most often severe depression in the elderly, that mimics the features of dementia.

Exaggeration or fabrication of symptoms as in malingering and factitious disorder.

Patient arrives in place distant from home, claiming not to know who he is, how he got there, etc. Dissociative amnesia following psychosocial stress is usual.

Catatonic feature in which the patient holds his head a few inches above the bed.

General slowing of movement and speech, typically in severe depression.

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