Psychological treatments see Chapter

There is evidence that 'psycho-educational' (Nadeem et al., 2006) interventions, including individual and group sessions, are effective at reducing relapse.

• Family therapy of a structured kind, including elements of education of patient and relatives about the illness and the reduction of high 'expressed emotion' (EE), has been shown to improve outcome for patients who live in the family home. Support for relatives, provided by mental health care professionals and/or self-help organizations, is important.

• Cognitive-behavioural therapy has been the subject of a great deal of research. There are suggestions that it can improve some outcomes, such as insight, but the practical clinical significance of such changes remains unclear.

• Psychodynamic psychotherapy is not appropriate for schizophrenia.

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