Hydrocephalus has various causes: congenital malformation of the fourth ventricle associated with spina bifida, meningitis, or brainstem tumour in childhood, or rarely a sex-linked inherited condition. Insertion of a shunt ameliorates brain damage.

Microcephaly may result from a recessive autosomal gene and comprises severe LD, overactivity, and a low cephalic index, which gives a bird-like appearance. Microcephaly may also result from other causes such as radiation or cytomegalovirus infection in utero.


Bradley, E. and Lofchy, J. (2005). Learning disability in the accident and emergency department. Adv Psychiatr Treat 11, 45-57. Smiley, E. (2005). Epidemiology of mental health problems in adults with learning disability: an update. Adv Psychiatr Treat 11, 214-222.

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