Educational underachievement

Causes include:

low IQ


• specific delays in development. Specific reading retardation, or dyslexia, is an isolated difficulty in learning to read and write, more common in boys and sometimes associated with clumsiness and conduct disorder. Specific arithmetical disorder and specific motor retardation are also described as isolated syndromes. These disabilities may be improved by special teaching methods

• physical handicaps: problems with vision or hearing, epilepsy

• poor relationships with parents or teachers, or low parental expectations

• boredom in bright children

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