'Juvenile delinquency' is law-breaking behaviour in children over the age of 10. Delinquency is strongly associated with social factors: disturbed families, large families, criminality in other family members, poverty, and residence in certain city neighbourhoods. In some areas, about 20 per cent of boys show delinquent behaviour. Delinquency is also associated with individual factors: low intelligence, brain damage, and minor physical deformities. Management of serious cases may involve supervision by a probation officer, local authority care, or a period of community service, but it is uncertain whether such measures influence the outcome. About 40 per cent of persistently delinquent teenagers become criminals in adult life.

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