Cerea flexibilitas waxy flexibility

pressure and heart disease; it is also used to treat physical manifestations of anxiety, such as palpitations.

Content of delusion obviously implausible in view of patient's background and culture.

Reduction in range and intensity of emotional expression.

Sense of the self and body.

French term for brief psychotic disorders.

Neurological term for generalized motor slowness.

Unconscious grinding of the teeth while awake or asleep; associated with mental disorder.

Eating disorder characterized by abnormal eating patterns, especially bingeing.

Delusion that family member has been replaced by a double, usually secondary to schizophrenia or organic brain disease.

Catatonic maintenance of abnormal body positions over an extended period of time.

Sudden attack of muscular flaccidity, leading to collapse in association with strong emotion.

Severe, 'classical' form of schizophrenia, now rare, with motor immobility (i.e. catalepsy or stupor), negativism, mutism, posturing or stereotyped movements, and echolalia or echopraxia.

Positive resolution of emotional crisis, often by talking through the problem with the therapist.

Semi-obsolete synonym for severe pain, especially pain that cannot be explained by physical disease.

This is seen in catatonic schizophrenia, and is therefore now rare; the patient's limbs can be placed in awkward positions that he will maintain as if he were made from plasticene.

chorea circumstantiality clang association climacteric clouding of consciousness cognitive comorbidity compensation compulsion concrete thinking confabulation constricted affect conversion coprolalia coprophagia Cotard's syndrome

Abnormal involuntary writhing movements.

Speech is indirect, with irrelevant material, but the patient does get to the point in the end.

Disorder of the form of thought in which words seem to follow each other on the basis of sound or rhyme rather than meaning.

Menopause.

An organic mental state characterized by drowsiness and generalized impairments in cognitive functioning. It usually suggests an acute confusional state or delirium.

To do with thought or thinking.

Simultaneous existence of two or more disorders, such as mental illness and substance misuse.

Either an unconscious, psychoanalytic 'defence mechanism' or a consciously desired outcome of litigation.

Ritualistic behaviour, such as repeated cleaning, to prevent some dreaded consequence, even though the patient knows it is irrational.

Focus on immediate practical matters and inability to deal with abstractions. It may be secondary to organic brain disease or schizophrenia.

Fluctuating false memory made up by the patient to cover organic amnesia.

Mildly reduced range and intensity of emotional expression.

The hysterical production of neurological symptoms such as weakness or blindness.

Involuntary use of socially inappropriate words.

Eating of faeces.

Type of nihilistic delusion: the patient believes that he does not exist.

counter-transference cretinism cri du chat culture-specific syndromes cyclothymia decompensation defence mechanisms déjà pensé

déjà vu delirium delirium tremens delusion

The therapist's unconscious emotional reactions to the patient, deriving from the therapist's own issues.

Severe mental retardation due to untreated congenital thyroid deficiency.

Type of mental retardation, with characteristic cat-like cry; it is caused by partial deletion of chromosome 5.

Forms of disturbed behaviour in certain societies that are difficult to fit into psychiatric classification systems; they include amok, koro, latah, etc.

Type of personality with pronounced variability of mood through depression and elation that is not severe enough to count as bipolar affective disorder.

Loose shorthand for deterioration of symptoms and/or behaviour under stress.

In psychoanalytic theory, unconscious psychological processes that serve to protect the individual from awareness of internal or external stressors or dangers.

A new thought feels familiar - feeling that one has thought the same thing before.

The sensation of undue familiarity with an event or a person - feeling that the same thing has happened before, etc.

Synonymous with 'acute organic brain syndrome' and 'confusional state': due to physical causes, consciousness is reduced, with disorientation, illusions, visual hallucinations, persecutory ideation, and consequent disturbed behaviour.

Confusional state following sudden stoppage of drinking in a dependent subject.

A (usually) false belief that is inappropriate to the patient's religion and culture, and impervious to argument or evidence.

delusion of reference

Condition in which events or other circumstances have a particular meaning for the patient; for example, 'The delusional jealousy delusional mood delusional perception dementia dementia praecox dementia pugilistica

denial depersonalization depression derailment (loosening of associations)

car flashed its headlights which confirms that the secret services are after me.'

Delusion that one's partner is unfaithful.

Also known as wahnstimmung, the conviction that something of special importance to the patient is about to happen.

Normal perception that has become incorporated into a delusional system.

Chronic organic mental illness, such as Alzheimer's disease, with progressive global deterioration in intellectual function.

Krapelin crucially distinguished this psychotic illness ('premature dementia') from manic depressive illness (now termed 'bipolar affective disorder'). His patients had what we would now diagnose as severe schizophrenia with negative symptoms. The term dementia praecox is not now used clinically, however, as the patients do not demonstrate the modern concept of dementia.

Parkinsonism with intellectual impairment in professional boxers and others with a history of repeated head trauma.

Postulated psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which certain information is repressed from consciousness.

Sensation that one has become unreal or detached from reality, or is in a dream; can be normal (as in exhaustion or strong emotion) or associated with anxiety, hysteria, and neurological disorders.

Affective disorder, currently overdiagnosed, with profound, persistent sadness, unresponsive to circumstances.

A disorder of the form of thought in which the patient, while speaking, keeps changing topics without obvious links, but still makes grammatical sense.

derealization detachment dhat disinhibition disorientation displacement dissociation or dissociative state distractibility doppelgänger double bind drive dyad dysarthria dyskinesia

Sensation that the world has become unreal, as in depersonalization.

Personality characterized by general aloofness in personal relations.

Culture-bound syndrome (Indian males) involving complaint of losing semen in the urine.

Loss of normal social inhibitions as seen in intoxication, psychosis, mania, and organic disorders such as dementia and occasionally tumour.

Loss of correct knowledge of the day, date, season, or location, due to loss of short-term memory in organic mental states. Long-term memory, as of who one is, is relatively preserved.

Postulated psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which emotions are unconsciously transferred from their original focus to some more acceptable one.

State of hysteria (or conversion and dissociative disorders, to use the current term), in which the patient loses psychological function, as in hysterical amnesia or psychogenic fugue.

Inability to attend.

Phenomenon in which the patient feels that his 'double' accompanies him.

Bateson suggested that schizophrenia might be contributed to by the patient's having to respond to inconsistent communications in the family.

Motivation.

Two-person relationship.

Speech affected by disorder of its physical organs, as in hoarseness due to laryngitis.

Technically, any disorder of movement, but, in practice, used to mean involuntary muscular activity, such as the grimacing of tardive dyskinesia.

dyslexia dysphoria dyspraxia dystonia

écho de la pensée echolalia echopraxia ego ego-dystonic elaboration elevated mood erotomania (de Clérambault's syndrome)

euthymic extinction extracampine

Reading difficulty, as in word blindness.

Any unpleasant mood state, such as sadness, anxiety, or irritability.

Difficulty in carrying out skilled movement, suggestive of stroke or other cerebral pathology.

Disorder of muscle tone.

See gedankenlautwerden.

Automatic repetition of the last words the patient has heard.

Automatic mirroring of another's doings.

The psychoanalytic model of the mind suggests that there are three major components: ego, id, and superego. The ego can be thought of as the conscious mind, the id as primitive instinct, and the superego as conscience.

Those aspects of a person he experiences as inconsistent with his personality as a whole.

Postulated unconscious psychoanalytic process whereby details about, say, a dream are embellished.

Mood is high, euphoric, or elated. Patient's delusion, usually part of schizophrenia, that another person is in love with (usually) her.

Normal mood state.

In behaviour therapy, a reinforced operant response will gradually become extinguished if reward (reinforcement) ceases, so that Pavlov's dogs would gradually stop salivating at the sound of the bell if the bell were no longer accompanied by food.

Hallucinations outside the possible range of sensation, such as seeing oneself from behind.

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