Carl Jung 18751961

Jung's system of psychotherapy, called analytical psychology, emphasizes the exploration of dreams and the unconscious, and aims at 'individuation' of the patient; this involves achieving harmony between the conscious and unconscious, and full experience of the self. Jungian concepts include the following:

• Libido, or general psychic energy, flows between pairs of opposites such as progression-regression, conscious-unconscious, and extroversion-introversion. If it is blocked in one direction, pathology results; for example, excess energy in the unconscious manifests as psychiatric illness.

• The unconscious mind is revealed in dreams, with both personal and collective aspects, the latter including instincts, archetypes, and universal symbols.

• Personality depends on the degree of extroversion and introversion and which of the 'four functions' - thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition - is most highly developed. There is an outward personality, or 'persona', and an unconscious 'shadow' which has opposite characteristics.

Jung's book Man and His Symbols gives a readable, illustrated account of his life and work.

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