Antipsychotics

Antipsychotics (neuroleptics, major tranquillizers) specifically ameliorate psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), as well as having a general sedative action. Chlorpromazine was first introduced in the 1950s, as an antihistamine; a French surgeon noted its marked sedative action on surgical patients, and it was then tried out on psychiatric patients, often with dramatic results. Many other compounds are now available (Box 23.1).

Box 23.1 Antipsychotic Drugs in Common Use

Generic name

Proprietary name

Chemical group

Chlorpromazine

Largactil

Phenothiazine

Clozapine

Clozaril

Dibenzapine

Fluphenazine decanoate*

Modecate

Phenothiazine

Flupenthixol decanoate*

Depixol

Thioxanthene

Haloperidol

Serenace

Butyrophenone

Haloperidol decanoate*

Haldol

Butyrophenone

Olanzepine

Zyprexa

Atypical

Pimozide

Orap

Diphenylbutylpiperidine

Promazine

Sparine

Phenothiazine

Risperidone

Risperdal

Atypical

Sulpiride

Dolmatil

Benzamide

Trifluoperazine

Stelazine

Phenothiazine

Zuclopenthixol decanoate*

Clopixol

Thioxanthene

Zuclopenthixol acetatef

Acuphase

Thioxanthene

*Long-acting intramuscular injection. tMedium-acting intramuscular injection.

*Long-acting intramuscular injection. tMedium-acting intramuscular injection.

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